Friday, May 31, 2019

Bradstreets The Author to Her Book :: Bradstreet Author to Her Book Essays

In Anne Bradstreets poem The Author to Her Book, the controlling metaphor is the image of a baby being innate(p) and c bed for. This birth imagery expresses the complex status of the speaker by demonstrating that the speakers low regard for her own work and her actions are contradictory.      The first effect of the birth imagery is to present the speakers book as a reflection of what she sees in herself. Unfortunately, the child displays blemishes and crippling handicaps, which represent what the speaker sees as deep faults and imperfections in herself. She is not unaccompanied embarrassed nevertheless ashamed of these flaws, even considering them unfit for light. Although she is repulsed by its flaws, the speaker understands that her book is the offspring of her own feeble brain, and the lamentable errors it displays are therefore her own.      When the speakers book is returned by the publisher, the speakers attempt to wash (the) face of her chi ld only worsens the image of herself that she sees in it. Washing the child, rubbing off a blemish, and stint its joints but failing to improve his imperfections all contribute to an image of the speaker rewriting her book, desperately trying to raise its quality up to her high standards, but discovering in the process that its imperfections and errors run too deep to be corrected, as do her own.      In the second half of the poem, a new facet of the speakers attitude is displayed. In line 17, she wants to improve the ugliness of her child by giving him new clothes however, she is too poor to do so, having nought save unsmooth cloth with which to dress her child. In the final stanza, the speaker reveals poverty as her motive for allowing her book to be sent to a publisher (sending her child bring out into the world) in the first place. This makes her attitude seem to contradict her actions.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

My Typical American Family :: Traditions Cultures Cultural Essays

My Typical American FamilyWhat is a typical American? What is generally viewed as a typical American is that your family has lived here for years and years and you dont personally know who immigrated here. Along with this, your family has molded into this typical view with no foreign traditions and things. A lot of people in my soma can talk about their relatives that speak another language or have immigrated here. I dont have anything like that so Ill tell you about mine. concord to BlaunerMembers of an ethnic group hold a set of common memories that make them feel that their customs, culture, and outlook are distinctive.My family doesnt pass down stories or anything. No corporeal passed on customs, no immigrant stories. Takaki thinks everyone should be educated in all culture that makes America so diverse. I dont really have a culture. My family more or less assimilated to the traditional mainstream American. AS distant as I know, I am Irish, German, and Native American. Where or when each came together, I dont know. Randall Bass saysIndividuals derive their guts of identitiy from their culture, and cultures are systems of beliefs that determine how people live their lives.Well I have my own story. Ill start by talking about my mothers side of my family. As far as I know both my grandparents grew up and lived in Detroit. They raised my mom and Uncle there too. My grandma stayed at home while my grandpa inflexible airplanes. Its kind of cool because he was in WWII also to fix the fighter planes. They were fairly well off and had a boat on the river. Theyre background is Irish and German. Although they never personally told me there was German,Im taking an educated guess because the last name (Volkening) looks really German.My dads side is German and Native American. Ive been told I have relatives in Germany with the same last name although Ive never met them or know their names. My grandma also stayed at home and my grandma worked in a factory. They too lived in Detroit and raised my dad and my two Uncles in a two-bed live house. My dad slept in the laundry room next to the water heater because there wasnt enough room in the other two rooms.My parents both met in Detroit and lived there for about twenty years. Both my parents worked through college to help pay for each others tuition.

Essay --

Danielle C. Dillonatomic number 63 in the Middle AgesFall 2013Final ExamMany things effected society in Medieval Europe, some having a more profound effect than others. Europe in the Middles ages was a season of knowledge and of cultural growth, but it was also a time of more serious things such as the grim Death. The way Europe coped with these unforeseen challenges, helped shape their society and culture, and we still learn about them today. The Black Death was of significance in Europe, but what exactly was it? The Black Death, also cognise as the Bubonic Plague was a wide spread transmission in Medieval Europe that wiped out one third of the entire population during this time period. This plague affected the Lymph Nodes, where the bacteria found a fitting place to reproduce. How was the black plague spread you may ask? This is where some of the advances made in Europe during the Middle Ages, backfired and actually had a negative effect. It is widely known that the Black Pl ague was transmitted through rats, but it finds in origins in Asia. Thus the fleas found on these rats, must have come to Europe somehow, for this we look at trade routes. It was very common for markets and fairs to open up with imported goods in Europe, some of these goods coming from Asia, thus traveling salesmen and their merchandise be largely responsible for the transmission of the disease. Another reason this disease was so deadly was the lack of euphony, and knowledge of science. Though there was knowledge of science and medicine in the time, it does not compare to what we know now, including the knowledge of incubation periods. We know now because of modern medicine, that diseases can be transmitted before symptoms show, this was not known in M... ...olarly endeavors, rather than strictly practical ones. Humanists also believed that the entirety of society should be well versed and able to speak articulately. The focus also changed during this time period to the here and now rather than the afterlife. The worth of individuals began to become more important, rather than just their worth in relation to society as a whole. Renaissance Humanism was the first time in history that people began to question authority and the teachings they had learned, it was the first time in history that individual convention was commonly accepted. Medieval Europe was a time of great tragedy (The Black Death) but it was also a time of great advancements in learning and culture. Perhaps one day thousands of years from now, people will read of our advancements and note their profound impact, as we do with Europe in the Middle Ages.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Analysis of Donnes The Bait and Marlowes Passionate Shepherd to His L

Love, an extremely and unsurprisingly popular topic among writers in every time period and shoetree of the world, is the central subject of two similar, but contradicting literary works The Passionate Shepard to His Love by Christopher Marlowe and The Bait by John Donne, respectively. Each author masterfully utilizes imagery, but in different ways to achieve two different purposes. Marlowes idealistic vision of what love should be is countered by Donnes kind of cynical realism.Both works begin with an identical first line that is followed by a line that Donne alters from Marlowes original line. The change seems subtle yet it contains thematically significant meaning. Marlowes second line reads and we will all the pleasures prove while Donne slightly changes the latter of the two and we will some in the raw pleasures prove The discontinuity lies in the wording as Marlowe fails to recognize the negatives connected with relationships. Donne acknowledges these hardships, replacing Marlowes extreme word choice - all to some. The alteration provides a more realistic approa...

Edgar Allan Poe?s Poetry :: essays research papers

Once something is gone, it is extremely hard to recover. Poe proves this true in his poems, many of which are round the loss of ideal beauty. Poe often writes about this, even so some(prenominal) as defining poetry as The rhythmical creation of beauty, as stated in his writing, The Poetic Principle. Three poems that are specifically about the loss of ideal beauty are The Raven, Lenore and Annabel leeward. In The Raven, the speaker is trying to accept the death of his beloved, Lenore. He decides that he should move on, because it is only causing him great torment. He says this out loud, and the raven states Nevermore, meaning that he will never forget about her. He argues with the bird, but the bird keeps telling him, Nevermore. By the end of the poem, the speaker is still tormenting over Lenore, because the raven is still sitting on screen of his chamber door, reminding him, not letting him move on. Lenore was an example of ideal beauty, and as shown in this poem, it was impossi ble to regain it after its death. Lenore is the subject of another poem by Edgar Allan Poe, entitled Lenore. In this case, the speaker is basically reprimanding Guy De Vere for killing his bride, leaving the speaker obsessing over what was, and what is now gone. In this poem, he is told to move on, because she is dead, and he cannot help that. The speaker wishes to mourn her death in silence, and imagine her as an ideal beauty, resting beside the King of Heaven.The final poem I will analyze is Annabel Lee. This poem talks about an ideal beauty he knew as a child, and she was killed unexpectedly by the angels, according to the speaker, because he was too happy, and too much in love with her. In this poem, however, he accepts her death, but claims to have beat the angels, because neither the angels in heaven above, nor the demons down under the sea, can ever fork my soul from the soul of the beautiful Annabel Lee. This poem is different from the other two poems, because not only is i t a different woman, but he psychologically accepts her death, in a way, rather then being forced to torment over it.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

WAL-MART Essay -- essays research papers

Wal-Mart Is Wal-Mart good for communities, or is Wal-Mart a wolf in sheeps clothing? With a gross annual sales of over $67 one gazillion million million and more than 2,000 stores, Wal-Mart is one of the biggest corporations in the unite States. Wal-Mart opens a new store once every two days in small communities and cities across the United States, however, are these stores good for these communities, or are they wrecking havok? When you look down at the fine print Wal-Mart doesnt earn its money it steals it money from other businesses. strangling other smaller businesses by offering wider varity of products at a more competitive price. This is actually a very simple business tactic if you exigency to sell a lot of something cut your profit margin to beat the other competitors and you will sell more. Wal-Mart stole an average of over $10 million in an average sized Iowan Town. You want to beat Wal-Mart keep by keeping it from invading you town and making it a ghost land? hither are some steps that have been victorious in the past as how to keep Wal-Mart out. Quote Wal-Marts officers, they have been known to say very self-contradictory things for instance Wal-Marts founder Sam Walton once said "If some community, for whatever reason, doesnt want us in there, we arent interested in going in and creating a fuss." or is the VP of Wal-Mart once stated, "We have so many opportunities for building in communities that want Wal-Marts, it would be foolish of us to pursue construction ...

Monday, May 27, 2019

Persuasive speech Essay

the Statesns should be considered equal and allowed the opportunity to marry a person of the same sex if they desire. For years, marriage has been defined as the union of a man and woman. In fact, in the United States, the Defense of Marriage Act has been passed by the Congress. This has masterhibited and denied same-sex marriages. According to, this issue on same-sex marriages has act to bring out divided and different opinions from people, though some states direct stepped towards allowing legal rights to gay marriages. According to, same sex marriage has be keep up a major constitutional issue. In all these debates, my stand is that we should allow this kind of marriage. I believe that all(prenominal) person, whatever his or her gender is, should be set with equality. Mary Bonauto, the Civil Rights Project Director of human being & Lesbian Advocates & Defenders, said that civil rights movements make an effort to create a world without privil eged places from which individuals or groups of people are excluded solely because of personal characteristics. They have struggled for women, African the Statesns and now lesbians and gays in America.Are we to overlook and disregard those struggles? If they have fought for equality for women and for African Americans and we have learned to accept it, why can we not give away way to equality in terms of marriage? Gays and lesbian couples want to get matrimonial simply because they sack out from each one other deeply. Bonauto said that these people view marriage as the ultimate means of expressing their love for each other, just want other people do. Many of these couples would want to marry if only they were allowed to do so, according to According to, Mary Becker, Professor of Law at DePaul University College of Law demonstrate the real good in marriage, it being an intimate piece connection that transcends gender and procreation. Professor Be cker suggests that the government should support a model that advances human happiness and well-being in its regulation of marriage. There had been a lot of arguments on this, though. I quote from a press release from white,America is a free society, which limits the role of government in the lives of our citizens. This commitment of freedom, however, does not require the redefinition of one of our most basic social institutions. Our government should respect every person, and protect the institution of marriage. There is no contradiction between these responsibilities. We should also conduct this difficult debate in a manner worthy of our country, without causticity or anger. Also, the site cites things that gay marriages can result to, such as weakening of the family and the encouragement of people to remain homosexual. Well, what I have to say is I think that every person has a choice to become what he wants to be. He can choose what to make of that right. Wh at steps can we do to exculpate this issue? For starters, if we are to respect every person in the real sense, we are not to let discrimination hurt anyone. And I populate that each of us can handle this debate without bitterness. I hope we could all open our eyes and see beyond ourselves, to see where other people come from and what they believe in and to respect what they uphold. If we say that we are a free society then lets show it. Let us give gay couples the freedom to marry if they want to. At some point in our lives, we may have experienced discrimination in various ways. And we know that doesnt feel good. You see, we all have rights. And we need to treat all people, including gays and lesbians equally and with respect, just like how we want to be treated. Same-sex marriage is not a bad thing. Gay marriages just prove that marriage, love and commitment pass beyond gender.Think of this. What if you were in their shoes, not having the chance to marry the person you love beca use of gender biases? How would you feel?Live and let live.SourcesBecker, M., Family Law in the Secular State and Restrictions on Same-Sex Marriage Two Are Better Than One, University of Illinois Law Review, 20011-56, Retrieved November 21, 2006 from http//, M. L., Civil Marriage as a Locus of Civil Rights Struggles, Human Rights, 30(3)3-7 ( 2003) (American Bar Association, Section of Individual Rights and Responsibilities) Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http//,G. (2004). Same Sex Marriage In The News. Retrieved November 21,2006, from http//, R. (2003). Gay Marriage Is Not Only Wrong Its Socially Destructive. Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http//,J. MARRIAGE LAW AND FAMILY LAW AUTONOMY, INTERDEPENDENCE, AND COUPLES OF THE SAME GENDER, Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http// Marriage in Native America (2005). Retrieved November 21,2006, from http//www.democr Calls for Constitutional Amendment Protecting Marriage (2004). Retrieved November 21, 2006, from http//

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Privatizing Philippine Public Service Delivery

Privatization may seem like a perfect solution for deficit-plagued g all overnments, except the morning afterwards can bring some unpleasant surprises. As a city or country drowned in deficits and faced multiple lawsuits, city leaders aphorism outsourcing as a light at the end of a collapsing tunnel. But it was just now a mirage. The search for financial salvation is sweeping the country as local governments grapple with waning sales and property tax revenues. The economic recession has strangled budgets, forcing layoffs and the disbanding of departments. Feeling pushed to the brink of bankruptcy, cities argon trying to find impelling ways to make do with less.Over the year, more semi existence officials have turned to outside sources for help in providing emoluments at a raze cost to the countrys provinces or cities. In theory, the idea of contracting public renovations to private companies to cut costs makes sense. If someone is willing to rectify streets or coiffure ou t fires for less money, that should be a plus for a governments bottom line. Many provinces and local governments have set hundreds of millions of pesos in savings by hiring outside contractors or a neighbouring citys serve to handle tasks like trash collection, electricity repair, and water and effluent treatment.For me, privatization of public services is by no means a perfect solution. Some agencies dont have the metrics in place to bear witness in advance that outsourcing a service will save money. Problems from poorly conceived contracts can create cost increases that surpass the costs of in-house services, and if theres cheap contract oversight, a government is vulnerable to corruption and profiteering. The privatization of public services can erode accountability and transparency, and drive governments deeper into debt.Governments at all levels are bonnie desperate to balance their budgets, and theyre grasping at privatization as a panacea. But theres evidence that it often is a very mediocre deal with hidden costs and consequences when you turn over public service to a for-profit company. Various governments from small towns all the way up to provinces have been send public services to the private sector since the 1980s. The trend stems from the common belief that private companies can help governments save or make money by doing jobs faster and cheaper, or managing a public asset more efficiently. Sterile philosophical debates bout public versus private are often detached from the daily world of public management. Over the last several decades, in governments at all levels throughout the world, the public sectors role has increasingly evolved from organise service provider to that of an indirect provider or broker of services governments are relying far more on networks of public, private and non-profit organizations to deliver services. Like more or less countries, the Philippines telecommunications industry was once a monopoly of the Phi lippines Long Distance Telephone Company (PLDT) overseen by the Philippines government.In 1995, the government decided to privatize the industry and created the Public Telecommunications form _or_ system of government Act of 1995 (RA 7925) in the hopes of creating a more level playing ground for all companies. The Act was defined as the new legal, policy, and regulatory framework in the promotion and governance of Philippine telecommunications development. The country was divided up into eleven regions, opening up the market to various competing telecommunication companies.The Act covers all telecommunications entities, protects users rights, increases the roll-out intent from five to three years, enforces the deregulation of value-added services and the complete privatization of all government telecommunications facilities by 1998. The dismantling of the monopoly and opening of the country to other telecom companies has resulted in a drastic improvement in teledensity. Local tele phone service is provided by 78 private telephone companies and 4 government units. PLDT, the largest of the local telephone service providers, accounts for 67. 4% of the telephone service in the country. All the other telephone service providers combined account for 32. 76%. The governments most flourishing in privatization created a permanent, centralized entity to manage and oversee the operation, from project analysis and vendor selection to contracting and procurement. For governments that forgo due diligence, choose ill-equipped contractors and break up to monitor progress, however, outsourcing deals can turn into costly disasters. The problem is that outsourcing deals are really about risk. We are taking the risk of the unknown and dumping that on your supplier.We are outsourcing a problem to a company that has limited control over the root cause of the problem. The only way for a public-private partnership to work, is to drive regeneration from within the agency, and that s the hard part. Red tape usually prevents governments from making significant modifications, and private companies lack the authority to enforce real changes. When such a public-private stalemate stunts a project, it helps to have an exit strategy. Before governments hire outside contractors, its important to examine the cost-effectiveness.More quantify than non, its less costly to use public workers instead of outside contractors. Take what happened in Metro Manila, the privatization of MWSS was initially welcomed by residents. Between 1997 and 2001, the two companies granted concessions for the eastern and western zones of the metropolitan area installed 238,000 new water connections, 128,000 of which were in urban poor communities. New service connections, which averaged only 17,040 per year from 1991-1995 tripled to 53,921 after privatization in 1997.Communities that used to have only limited water services found that they had water coming in 24 hours a day. Manila Water was allowed to enkindle its tariff six times higher than its received bid and Maynilad, which had a higher rate to begin with, was allowed to raise its rate four-fold. Even these rate increases, however, were insufficient to stabilize the situation and in March 2004, Benpres Holdings, the company in charge of Maynilad indicated it wanted to return its concession to MWSS as it was unable to pass its concession fees to the water agency.Under the original contract, Benpres had put up a performance bond of $120 million in favor of MWSS. As a compromise, Benpres forfeited $50 million of that bond besides it did not have to pay its arrears in concession fees amounting to Pesos 8 billion. Moreover, Benpres was allowed to continue managing the company although its stake in its capitalization had been reduced to 2 per cent from an original 60 per cent. The Pesos 800 million that Benpres invested in Maynilad were wiped out. All in all, therefore, Benpres was losing P3. 2 billion in the fiasc o.Interestingly, Manila Water, which got the eastern zone concession, has not suffered the same kinds of problems encountered by Maynilad. The of import reason for this is the fact that Manila Water got a smaller zone of the metropolitan area, a relatively new area where the water infrastructure was not as badly dilapidated. Manila Water also assumed only $80 million of the debt of MWSS. When it was hit by the foreign exchange crisis, the government allowed it to raise its water rates six-fold because it had a much lower initial rate.A good outsourcing deal starts with a thorough cost-benefit analysis to see if a terce party can effectively deliver services better and more cheaply than public employees. Government should hire an outsourcing consultant who can provide an indie assessment. But even with a consultant, conflicts of interest can tarnish a golden opportunity. After all, private companies may want to provide a service efficiently and well and often do but governments must ride herd on implementation of the contract. A companys motivation is not the common good its profit.If they can cut corners in any way, they often do. In that regard, the provider that offers the lowest bid might not be the best option. But with our countrys experience in several large-scale government outsourcing deals, we have seen first-hand that in a bidding war, the company that has a liberal interpretation for the lowest price wins, which inevitably leads to strife when high expectations meet underachievement. Anyone can bid any outsourcing deal 5 percent cheaper, but the problem is you dont know what they cut out. When price decreases appear unrealistic, theres no magic.They are unrealistic. Even with the proper oversight channels, policies wint work if departments dont participate. The laws were created to promote transparency and to ensure that agencies complete an effective cost-benefit analysis prior to procurements. But compliance has been low over the years. Wit h these, I have come up with a generalization that the pros and cons of privatization of Philippines service delivery are as follows PROS 1. Government can raise funds to pay off other debts fast because of relieve from financial burden of the public sector enterprises being privatized 2.It removes governments monopolistic status and inability to be responsive to citizens needs, resulting in inefficient, one-size-fits-all services. Like the above-cited case of PLDT. 3. In practice, all levels of government, seeking to reduce costs, have begun turning to the private sector to provide some of the services that are ordinarily provided by government. The spread of the privatization movement is grounded in the fundamental belief that market competition in the private sector is a more efficient way to provide these services and allows for greater citizen choice.Similar to the goal of the above-cited case of MWSS. 4. With privatization solidly on ground, costs will be reduced at the long r un. 5. Public sector workers are not harmed by privatization. Displaced workers can be hired by contractors or transferred to other government positions. 6. It stops loss-making public sector enterprises from adding to government debts 7. It gives new businesses access to investment capital that government cannot provide CONS 1. One of the disadvantages is that the privatized company will no longer operate in the public interest.While a state-owned company primarily serves the citizens of the state, the primary goal of a privately operated company is to make profit. It may make these profits at the expense of its customers without serving them properly. For example, it may choose the market which is most profitable to operate in and leave less wealthy customers without a service. 2. Prices may in reality rise if the service was previously subsidized by the government like what happened to MWSS.. This is a common experience after a successful privatization process.This becomes imper ative in a bid to provide qualitative service, improve efficiency and profitability. 3. Privatization alone may not lead to better quality or cost reduction in public service delivery. 4. Government no longer receives profits (if it was previously profitable), therefore, the revenue accruing to the government from public sector enterprises becomes shortened as a result of privatization. 5. The standard economic measures used to make privatization decisions fail to accurately assess the real costs and benefits of care.With all of the foregoing, I therefore conclude that privatization, when do right, works well. Privatization of public services is by no means a perfect solution. Privatization is not a blanket solution for the problems of poorly performing public sector enterprises. It cannot in and of itself make up totally for lack of competition, for weak capital markets, or for the absence of an appropriate regulatory framework. But where the market is basically competitive, or w hen a modicum of regulatory capacity is present, private ownership yields substantial benefits.A good outsourcing deal starts with a thorough cost-benefit analysis to see if a third party can effectively deliver services better and more cheaply than public employees. The success of any privatization arrangement, whichever technique is adopted, will be dependent on the sincerity of government to pursue it with unblemished policy implementation, support, co-operation and understanding of the citizenry. At the onset, privatization bites very hard, but at the long run, the benefits are varied and immeasurable.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Whole Foods Market Case Analysis

total Foods Market has received recognition as recent as January 27th 2011 when CNBC aired Supermarkets Inc Inside a viosterol Billion Money Machine. all Foods is arguably the most influential, and by some measures, the most successful supermarket chain in the world. The specialty gourmet store has expectant into a Fortune-300 lodge offering specialty foods and locally gr consume organic produce. CNBC goes on to tell that even Established brands like Safeway, Giant Eagle and Kroger ar cultural icons as familiar as our own street names, plainly they argon under unremitting attack from brilliant upstarts like tout ensemble Foods1 From the general supermarket industry Whole Foods Market breaks down into even a smaller specific industry which is the instinctive and organic foods industry.This industry focused on proving customers with natural foods which is defined as foods that argon minimally processed, largely or complexly free of artificial ingredients, preservatives and other non natural occurring ingredients and near to their whole, natural state as possible. 7. Also organic foods were a special subset of the natural foods category to be labeled as organic, foods had to be grown and processed without the use of pesticides, antibiotics, hormones, synthetical chemicals, artificial fertilizers, preservatives, dyes or additives or generic engenerring. Also from the text book CEO John Mackey believes Whole Foods Market has been highly selective for finding the highest whole step, least(prenominal) processed, most favorable and naturally preserved foods available. Whole Foods Market is an industry leader in natural and organic food retailing. The five forces cast of competition, in written form, is provided as a key analytical tool to better understand the boilersuit attractiveness of the industry.Rivalry among competing sellers is certainly strong and is expected to function stronger as more grocery retailers compete for loyal customers who desir e the healthiest foods. The threat of substitutes products is very high from other grocery retailers. For example, Publix has branded its own natural/organics products line named Green Wise and even a few stores that have a majority of its products natural/ organic. The restaurant industry should be considered but it is a very low threat because there are very few restaurants that are only dedicated to natural/organic products.The threat of saucily entrants entering the industry is fairly low. This is simply because grocery retailers have already got into the market to insure they would get their share. The bargaining power of suppliers is a medium run into aim threat to the industry because industry members are competing for products to put on their shelves from the same suppliers. The bargaining power of buyers is definitely low because conventional retailers set the price consumers must(prenominal) pay to obtain the goods they want.Because of these threat levels the overall a ttractiveness of the industry high. Consumers are be flood tide more conscious of the foods they are eating and willing continue get natural and organic foods. There have been many main events and performance indicators that have occurred with Whole Foods Market recently, as stated in the Epilogue to January 2009 Whole Foods Market planned on opening 15 stores , have annual sales of about 8. 3 billion, have capital expenditures of $400 to $450 million, and incur annual interest costs of $35 to $40 million. The main elements of Whole Foods Market strategy are providing customers with the highest timber natural/organic products. Whole Foods Market has a strong growth strategy because they have 66 store in the stages of development and have future plan of acquiring more stores to expand their caller further down the road. This growth strategy has helped them achieve their financial goals. Whole Foods Market can be assessed by using a simple study analysis. This assessment will b egin by examining the internal strengths and weaknesses.Internal strengths Whole Foods Market has two narrow markets that it serves, organic differentiation is the key-stone of whole foods mission, this means Whole Foods Market uses a focus differentiation strategy, highest quality brand reputation, dedication to the social ethics of organics, industry best customer service strong run chain, and developing a private label of organics. Whole Foods Market has had experience in the natural/organic retailing industry since 1980. For the past 30+ long time they have built over 300 large customized stores in North America and also in the United Kingdom.Whole Foods Market is cognise to provide the highest quality of products. Weaknesses of Whole Foods Market include the high prices for their products this is a direct result of the telephoners focus on their availability of the finest products. The majority of Whole Foods Market inventory consists of perishable items. This can sometimes pose problems because, produce, milk, eggs have a short shelf life, Produce especially needs constant maintenance to be graded as well as pulling the damaged or bruised produce off the sales floor.Working as a roduce clerk for several years I know the importance decreasing the cost of throw away products. It hurts the companys sales especially when you are dealing with pricy high quality natural and organic foods. Another weakness the Whole Foods Market faces is the high costs associated with expanding into different locations. The third come out of SWOT is external opportunities that WFM faces in the industry. Over the past couple of decades more consumers have been becoming more health conscious and eating right. WFM can take advantage of this new outlook on the health food industry by acquiring new customers.Also, Whole Foods Market should spend more currency on advertising to attract these health conscious customers. The final part of the SWOT analysis is the external threats that Whole Foods Market has to face. One of these threats is the increasing competition of already established grocery retailers. Its very easy for these competitors to add natural and organic foods into their inventory. Another threat to Whole Foods Market is that their growth relies on building new stores and acquisitions of existing favorable buildings.If Whole Foods Market does not succeed in acquiring these store then the dominating grocery retailers will take more market share and slow the companys growth. Evaluating Whole Foods Market using (S. W. O. T. ) analysis internally and externally helps you to develop an overall assessment of the companys current competitive situation. Whole Foods Market is in good standings with the competition they seem to have a business model that is working for them and may need to emphasis a bit more on advertising and attracting more health conscious tidy sum with pamphlets at gyms.The internally the company looks great with not to much to wo rry about but externally they must act now before the Wal-Mart starts taking their profits as well as other grocery retailers. One of the Key Success Factors (KSFs) of Whole Foods Markets is that it has a strong brand name because the company is well known reputation and far superior up against its main competitors. When a consumer shops at Whole Foods Market they know they will be getting the best quality possible. Another thing that gives them a competitive advantage, is the strong network of suppliers.This KSF has been a focus of Whole Foods Market to purchase their products grown locally to their stores. Information from wholefoodsmarket. com shows that distributively store has their own definition of local but the consumer moreover need to check with their particular store to find out where their quality goods are coming from. Another KSF is the access to locations rich in the target market. Whole Food Market has strived to establish stores in most metropolitan areas attracti ng more people. The Final KSF has been the companys effective marketing communication.There are many Key Success factors (KSF) when stacking Whole Foods Market up to the competition. It seeks out the finest natural and organic foods available, maintains the strictest quality standards in the industry, has an unshakeable commitment to sustainable agriculture, and the excitement and fun they bring to shopping for groceries, Whole Foods Market is permanently committed to buying from local farmers whose produce cumulate quality standards, particularly those who farm organically and are themselves dedicated to environmentally friendly, sustainable agriculture.Whole Foods Market is greatly increasing their efforts in this regard by further empowering their individual store and regional buyers to seek out locally grown produce. From Investor relations Whole Foods Market states Our success reaches far beyond the company by contributing to a higher quality of life. By offering the highest q uality food available, we are helping to transform the diet of America, helping people live longer, healthier, more pleasurable lives while responding positively to the challenge of environmental sustainability. In Conclusion, Whole Foods Market is the leader in this niche market of natural/organic foods industry and is facing strong competition from the big superstores such as Wal-Mart, Costco and many other grocery retail chains. The company is in a position to change people lives forever and future generations as well. As many companies are doing now is finding their consumers and keeping those customers for life. Not just what they just spend at the register each time but what they may spend over each persons life span and if you are eating healthier you will definitely live longer in return spending more money with Whole Foods Market.Works Citedhttp//

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Analysis of Adidas

POLITICAL FACTORS political stability is an cardinal factor in any country for Adidas. Political and regulatory risks include potential losses from expropriation, nationalization, civil unrest, terrorism and significant changes to trade policies . In particular the Adidas Group faces risks arising from sudden increase of import restrictions, charges in the taxation system of a country, minimum wage policy, import tariffs and duties that could compromise the free flow of goods.ECONOMIC FACTORS Economic growth and interest rates are study factors for any economy in the world, if interest rates are too high and keep rising, then the demand for products lead fall, as it makes saving more(prenominal) attractive and borrowing more expensive (Babette & Ferrell et. al 2008). Whereas if interest rates are too low, people are encouraged to spend, as saving isnt attractive. This means that there is more money going round in the economy and makes goods seem cheaper, which is bad for the econ omy as it causes inflation to increase. This is why it is important that interest rates are stable. Taxation, VAT, Inflation, unemployment and per capita income highly affect the companys profitability.SOCIAL FACTORS Adidas target market comprises of people from different social backgrounds. The Adidas Group is affected by peoples religion, race, culture, education levels, population, gender, buying habits and lifestyle. Different religions like Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Judaism and many more have different buying patterns and opinions for any products they buy (Wilson 2005). The Adidas Group has penetrated closely countries so all these social attributes play very important roles in deciding the companys strategy. PEST ANALYSISTECHNOLOGICAL FACTORS Technological advances in things like machinery will have an affect on the Adidas Group. The latest Technology can speed up production, save energy or cut down labour costs. currently the world has become a small village and the u se of the Internet is increasing day by day all around the world, soAdidas inescapably to make sure that they keep up-to-date with the Internet all the time. It will help customers to buy online, and help it to advertise online and many other things.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Reproductive Health Bill Essay

The Reproductive Health Bill is a law in the Philippines that guarantee universal access to methods on contraception, fertility control, informal education, birth control and maternal care. This bill or law is to provide the poor with reproductive health services, including access to contraceptives, and sex education to school children. That is wherefore the priests and the church officials are not in favour of this bill beca commit for them it is against the law of GOD, and some people disagree to use it because there is a rumours that after you use contraceptives youll get sick. In my point of view, I eyeshot this argument is unnecessary for me to know because Im just a student and I thought at first this bill is useless to the people after I read it, it is useful to the Philippines. This bill must be known to all the Filipinos turn up there.To me, I guess I am a Pro-RH bill because I am aware to what is happening to res publica right now, it plunder tending our country seiz e the blooming population of our country and I believe that lazy and irrelevant parenthood is one of the main problem why there is POVERTY. We can build a nation that can provide need to our family. A nation that can follow fast to the new century and can neer be left behind. Because of POVERTY, our country is being pulled down. And this bill can help for the couples married or unmarried because it contributes more to the knowledge to couples to have a mature family planning.We all know that couples demand to have sexual intercourse and so by these, they can ensure a happy family and will not advertize in numbers. And another thing is the Sex Education, to me I approve this so the students can help especially, their young minds to decrease the pregnancies of teens. I know Im against the church and the law of God but I can larn the future, if the population keep increasing fast trash will increase also, it is comparable in the movie Wall-E, so for me I agree to this bill. Anothe r thing, if the church always agree to the laws of the government there would be many laws that canhelp this country. Im not saying that Im against the church and God, Im also a Catholic but we must see that our country is IMPROVING.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Cjus 230 Final Paper

The Effects of Family Structure and Values on Juvenile depravity Christina M. Bracey 201240 Fall 2012 CJUS 230-B02 LUO Professor DeBoer Liberty University Online October 12, 2012 Abstract The mixed bags in family values and twist in the United States has armed serviceed bring to juvenile wickedness nowadays. Society needs to recognize problems within the home before trying to break solutions to problems for todays at risk callowness in America. Major structural changes inside of the home could adversely affect the raising of juveniles leading to delinquency.Some of the issues I will debate in my paper are divorce, child abuse, mothers stooling outside of the home, and single-parent homes. Ineffectively raising a child can cause lowly self-control and low self-esteem while increasing the risks of delinquency as well. I will argue that with proper supervision, counseling, and monitoring of the behavior of the juvenile, it is possible that society can help eliminate some o f the crimes committed by juvenile delinquents. Thesis The changes in family values and structure in the United States has helped contribute to juvenile delinquency today IntroductionFamily Structure has changed noticeably in the United States over the past several decades. It refers to various family characteristics that affect relationships and how families function. These characteristics include family size, family disruption, and birth order. High rates of divorce, single-parent housing, the spreading of non-parent families and step-families, and the multiplication of cohabitation now delineate in American family life. Changes in family structure can be devastating to a childs well-organism, and give up the potential to contribute to juvenile delinquency.The Family and Delinquency Widespread agreement among social scientists and the general public lead experts to believe that family plays a key role in child ontogenesis and assimilation. There are two sides however to familie s the first being a place where members love, care and provide for one another promoting healthy human growth. The mho side reveals conflict, a lack of support, and personnel. Families are extremely modeld by the governmental and economic context within which they operate (Elrod & Ryder, 1999, p. 53).A familys place within the political and economic structure is important because much(prenominal) placement determines the familys admittance to connections with other institutions. These institutions can consist of crop, work, church and voluntary associations. Also, such institutions can be useful resources for the family and can promote access to other resources. The family not only determines the economic billet within which the juveniles live, but is as well the primary molder of a childs character, values, and behavior (Elrod & Ryder, 1999, p. 54).A mixture of criminological theories assume that family plays a significant role in the prevention of delinquent behavior (Elr od & Ryder, 1999, p. 54). Family Size and Delinquency Larger families tend to produce more juvenile delinquents than smaller families. Being a middle child is likewise more predictive of delinquency than being either the youngest or eldest (Green & Gabbidon, 2009, p. 283). One common explanation for this issue is a straining of resources in larger families and the inability to provide appropriate paternal supervision.Green & Gabbidon (2009) suggest that middle children are more likely to be present during the times of strain older children leave the home first and younger children ride out when there is not as much demand for parental resources (p. 283). Exposure to Violence, Abuse, or Neglect Most studies find links between exposure to violence or abuse and later possibly offending (Green & Gabbidon, 2009, p. 282). Exposure to marital violence during childhood has been notably associated with committing marital violence as an adult. An estimated 30% of mistreat parents abuse their childrena rate of 15 times grittyer than non-abused parents (Green & Gabbidon, 2009, p. 282). Women that were physically abused during childhood are more likely to experience domestic violence as adults. Abused mothers that did not abuse their children tend to have had a non-abusive adult in their childhood or had a stable relationship flesh as an adult. Children that were sexually abused are more likely to succumb to delinquency, suicidal ideation, and prostitution (Green & Gabbidon, 1999, p. 82). Exposure to Poverty Poverty has been linked to crime for some(prenominal) years. Approximately 18% of children under the age of 18 live in poverty (Green & Gabbidon, 2009, p. 283). Juveniles that grow up poor have a number of banish life outcomes, including delinquency. The collision of socioeconomic status suggests that economic strain plays an important role likely because accessiond stress decreases effective parenting, a situation that leads to delinquency in children (Gre en & Gabbidon, 2009, p. 283). Impact of Community on Juvenile DelinquencyResearch passim neighborhoods has produced significant results on determining the impact of a community on juvenile (Green & Gabbidon, 2009, p. 283). incorporated socialization has a beneficial impact on the rate of delinquency among these youth. An extensive study of African American families showed that children who lived in a community high in collective socialization were little likely to associate with delinquent peers even when controlling for other important factors (Green & Gabbidon, 2009, p. 283). Theoretical Reasoning to Understanding tatterdemalion BehaviorThere are numerous theories that focus on families being the central reasoning behind juvenile crimes. Generally, families are considered to be the primary factors in socialization. The impact of family in juvenile delinquency has been theorized and investigated for more decades being that crime commonly runs in families. Parental criminality is one of the near vigorous and well-nigh consistent conjectures of a childs delinquency (Greene Gabbidon, 2009, p. 281). Biological Theory The so-called traditional family, with a male breadwinner and a womanish who cares for the home, is a thing of the past (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 94). This particular type of family structure can no longer be considered normal. Sex role changes have created a family in which the mother now plays a greater role in society and the economic process. The number of households that have children living with both parents has considerablely declined. Early social science researchers asserted that the broken home was the single most important factor in understanding delinquency (Burfeind Bartusch, 2011, p. 185). Less than half of the children born today will live continuously with their mother and father finishedout their childhood.A disturbed home environment is believed to have a significant impact on delinquency. Family is the contribut ing unit towards childrens values and attitudes that mark the paths throughout their lives. check to Seigel, Welsh, and Senna (2003), children who have witnessed a family breakup are more likely to exhibit behavioral problems and hyperactivity than those of intact families (p. 196). Often times, family disruptions are cor connect with hostility, conflict, and attachment. Children whose parents divorced are feeling to have less supervision and a greater risk of falling for peer pressure.Past research examined the effect of family structure on delinquency by equivalence single-father, single-mother, two-biological-parent families, and stepfamilies (Burfeind Bartusch, 2011, p. 185). The highest levels of delinquency were found in single-father families and the lowest levels being in two-biological-parent families, while single-mother families and stepfamilies were in the middle. The absence of a parent was associated with raze levels of involvement, supervision, monitoring, and cl oseness (Burfeind Bartusch, 2011, p. 185).Parental absence undermines manoeuvre and indirect control leading to higher levels of delinquency among youth living in single-parent families as compared to two-parent families. Not all marriages end and divorce some outride to live in an atmosphere of conflict (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 198). This conflict is known as intrafamily conflict and it common in many American families today. Studies have shown that children growing up in dysfunctional homes and witness disorder or violence, later display behavioral problems and worked up issues (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 98). Pre-existing family problems can cause delinquency however, it may also claim that children who act out put a sizable amount of stress on a family. Psychological Explanations Many scholars, policymakers, and laypersons have argued that there are unmarried differences in intelligence, personality, or other factors that not only separate delinquents from all other youths but that are, directly or indirectly, the causes of their delinquency (Shoemaker, 2010, p. 61).The earliest attempts in isolating the psychological or mental conditions of delinquent behavior, was the development of the concepts of moral insanity. It has been proposed that delinquents and criminals that were deficient in basic moral skills inherited this condition (Shoemaker, 2010, p. 61). correspond to psychologists, many delinquents have poor home lives, destructive relationships with friends, neighbors, teachers, and others in authoritative positions (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 83). The relationships that these youth have with these individuals symbolize a disturbed personality structure.A youths personality is defined by disallow and antisocial behavior characteristics, and since delinquent behavior occurs in every race, social group, and socioeconomic group, psychologists believe it is a function of emotional and mental disturbances. Many delinquents do not demonstrate notable psychological issues however enough do give clinicians a strong influence on delinquency conjecture (Siegel, Walsh Senna, 2010, p. 84). Psychology is a diversified and complex discipline in which more than one psychological perspective exists.The three prominent psychological perspectives on delinquency are psychodynamic, the behavioral, and the cognitive (Siegel, Walsh, Senna, 2010, p. 84). The psychodynamic hypothesis suggests that law violations are a product of an abnormal personality that formed early on in life. This personality controls human behavior choices. The basis of the psychodynamic theory is the assumption that human behavior is controlled by unconscious mental processes developed early in childhood (Siegel, Walsh, Senna, 2010, p. 84). Behavioral psychologists believe that a persons personality is learned through life experiences with others.Behavior is initially triggered by a stimulus or change in ones environment. If a certain behavior is rewarded by positive reactions, that behavior will continue and eventually be learned. The cognitive theory allows psychologists to focus on mental processes and the way plenty mentally represent the world around them including how they solve issues (Siegel, Walsh, Senna, 2010, p. 84). During the decision making process people shut away in a series of cognitive thoughts. First, they encipher information so that it can be interpreted. Then they search for a response and decide what the most appropriate action is to take.Finally, they act on the decision that they made (Siegel, Walsh, Senna, 2010, p. 89). It is suggested that using this approach, juveniles will be better conditioned to make appropriate judgments. Social disorganisation Delinquency that is primarily the result of a breakdown of institutional controls is known as social disorganization. The individuals who live in such situations are not inescapably themselves personally disoriented instead, they are viewed as re sponding naturally to disorganized environmental conditions (Shoemaker, 2010, p. 101).Social disorganization is associated with a lengthy list of collateral social problems, residential instability, ethnic/racial conflict, and family disruption (Siegel, Walsh, Senna, 2010, p. 110). Social Control Theories attempt to find factors that contribute to an individual decent deviant. Hirschis Theory states, overdue acts result when an individuals bond to society is weakened or broken (milium Lab, 1999, p. 93). An underlying presumption is that behavior is controlled by the connections a person has to the conventional social order.Deviance is exposed when the level of control over an individual diminishes to where that person is free to choose prohibited activities. Hirschi explains four outlines of bonds attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief (Whitehead Lab, 1999, p. 94). A bond is fundamentally a result of socialization that takes place during childhood. The first bond, atta chment, is the failure to care about what others think about the individuals behavior and views. The second bond, commitment, demonstrates the individuals ability to work towards acceptable goals.The third bond, involvement, uses the individuals energy and time in socially acceptable behaviors. The fourth bond, belief, opens doors for the individual for deviant and delinquent behavior. Later in Hirschis career, he proposed that single parenting may be just as effective as dual parenting (Leiber, Mack, Featherstone, 2008, p. 4). Hirschis Theory tried to explain why an individual is deviant and how they became the way they are. Poor socialization is the easiest explanation however, the theory fails to prove how this happens. The relative impact of the four elements of bond is left unexplained.Drift Theory divided Deviance is another area of concern. Youths tend to sway between delinquent and conventional behavior. Using the control theory, this drift between the two cannot be explai ned when an individual chooses to commit a deviance. Such drifts can only be explained by suggesting that the bond is strengthened and weakened easily and more often than none. According to Whitehead Lab, 1999, A final concern is that the theory assumes all bonding is to conventional, nondeviant lifestyles (p. 95). It is possible that the juvenile is being raised in a household with parents that are deviant.The theory suggests that a juvenile in such circumstances will be bonded to deviance. Labeling Theory The Labeling Theory is the view that form-only(prenominal) and informal reactions to delinquency can influence the attitudes and behavior of delinquents (Shoemaker, 2010, p. 259). Frank Tannenbaum introduced dramatization of evil, in which he suggested that officially labeling someone as a delinquent can result in the person becoming the very thing that they are labeled (Shoemaker, 2010, p. 259). A basic presumption regarding the labeling theory is that initial acts of delinqu ency are caused by a wide variety of factors.The primary factor in the recurrence of delinquency is the fact of having been formally labeled as a delinquent (Shoemaker. 2010, p. 260). Reiterated acts of delinquency are influenced by formal labels because they eventually alter a persons self-image to where the person begins to identify themselves as a delinquent and act accordingly. The view of labeling aspect is that a negative self-image follows the act of delinquency rather than preceding delinquency. The labeling approach is dependent on certain criteria in addition to the behavior itself.One does not have to be officially labeled a criminal or delinquent in order to label him/herself as such. Schools and Delinquency Another institution with has a profound impact on the lives of juveniles is condition. School is an important institution because it provides juveniles with the academic skills to effectively participate in society (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 61). Other reasons that sch ools play such important roles in the lives of juveniles is it has gravel the primary socialization institution. It is there that children learn attitudes, values, and skills that are necessary for their future in economic and social life.Much of the interaction between parents and children revolves around school related issues (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 61). A number of factors can be related to school failure and delinquency. Students feelings of belonging, commitment, and attachment to school reveal these factors are related to school violence, vandalism, and delinquency (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 63). Studies have found that students that dislike their teachers are more likely to be involved in delinquency than those who feel an attachment to their teachers (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 63).Students that are less committed to school and their teachers and who feel alienated are more likely to commit disruptive or delinquent behaviors in and out of school. Many students drop out of school a nd believe this is a solution to the problems they have faced in school. Dropping out of school has numerous negative consequences for the juvenile. They face less job prospects and many times experience difficulty meeting basic income needs to survive. Besides the economic effect of dropping out of school, there are also substantial psychological and social consequences (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 64).Usually, juveniles that drop out regret their decision and typically show evidence of not being satisfied with themselves and their environment. They also have lower occupational aspirations than those who graduate from school, and also have lower occupational aspirations for their children (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 64). Compared with students who stay in school, those who drop out tend to be from low socioeconomic status groups, to be members of minority groups, and to come from homes with fewer study aids and where there are fewer opportunities for non-school-related learning (Elrod Ryde r, 1999, p. 4). Juveniles that drop out are also more likely to have come from single-parent households where the mother works, resulting in less parental supervision. Studies have uncovered that when juveniles drop out of school, their involvement in criminal activities tends to increase immediately (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 65). Race and Juvenile Delinquents According to Burfeind Bartusch (2011), The relationship between race and involvement in delinquency is not entirely straightforward (p. 81). Minorities are disproportionately represented in arrest statistics.African American juveniles are arrested for a disproportionate number of rapes, murders, robberies, and assaults, while white juveniles are disproportionately arrested for arsons (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 40). The racial gap in juvenile arrest rates has broadened during the past decade with African American youths experiencing a steady increase in arrest rates. African Americans have suffered through a long history o f discrimination, which has produced last emotional scars (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 42). Racism is an element of daily life in the African American community.This factor alone undermines trustfulness in political and social institutions and weakens confidence in the justice formation. These acquired attitudes are supported by evidence, that in some jurisdictions, young African American males are treated more harshly than members of any other ethnic group. Differences in racial crime rates may also be tied to defeat over perceived racism, discrimination, and economic disparity (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 42). Gender and Delinquency Official arrest statistics point to males being significantly more criminal than females.However, the arrests of female delinquents in recent years have been increasing faster than those for males. Between 1990 and 2000, the number of arrests of male delinquents actually decreased by about 3 percent, whereas the number of female delinquents arrested increased about 25 percent (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 40). Age and Delinquency As juvenile offenders mature, their offending rates decline (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 43). Regardless of sex, race, social class, or intelligence, people commit less crime as they age.The aging-out process is referred to as spontaneous remission. According to this process, even the most continuing juvenile offenders will commit less crime as they age. There are a number of reasons as to why the aging-out process occurs. First of all growing older means that the offenders have to face the future. Secondly, with maturity comes the ability to resist the temptation to commit crimes as a quick fix solution. Some juveniles may turn to crime as a way to solve loneliness, problems with adolescence, frustration, and the fear of being rejected by peers (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 44).As the juvenile matures, more options become available to help solve these problems. Personalities can als o change with age. Youth that were more rebellious as youngsters, may eventually develop increased self-control and be able to resist delinquent behaviors. teen adults become more aware of the risks and consequences that accompany crime. As adults, they are no longer protected by the kindly arms of the juvenile justice system (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 44). Early Efforts at Diversion Efforts to divert children from normal criminal justice processing have a long history (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 60). The development of routine amusement strategies and specialized diversion programs has significantly increased during the past twenty years. In order to regulate the number of diversionary responses available to communities, the commission proposed the establishment of youth services bureaus (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 161). The bureaus were intended to assist existing community agencies that dealt with juveniles in coordinating programs and services for both delinquent and non-delinqu ent youth (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 161).They were also intended to serve as an alternative to juvenile court processing, allowing hundreds of thousands of juveniles to be diverted from the formal juvenile justice process each year (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 161). The Effectiveness of Diversion Diversion Strategies and Programs advocate that such programs decrease the number of juveniles involved in the formal juvenile justice process (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 173). These programs are believed to reduce offending youths who receive diversionary treatment, calumniate formal intervention, and are more cost-effective that formal processing (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 73). However, some evaluation studies have found that they fall short of their goals often. Some evaluation studies insinuate that diversion programs can reduce recidivism or are at least as effective as formal processing (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 173). It is possible that diversion programs may deny juveniles due process. Diversion may be compulsive and consist of intrusive interventions, and possibly, the youths family may be required to participate. Coercion is disputable and all levels of the juvenile justice process (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 173).Research on diversion, in sum, has produced mixed results (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 174). There are a number of problems that have been associated with diversion programs, but despite these problems diversion appears to have some merit (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 174). Decriminalization Societal Reaction advocates point out that the criminalization of some behaviors often produces more harm than it does good. Behaviors such as running away and not attending school are objectionable in many cases, but treating them as crimes does not always return the juvenile (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 65). Treating truants and runaways as juvenile offenders is expensive and ineffective. As a result, the societal reaction theorists leaned more towards the deinstitutionalization of status offenses (Elrod Ryder, 1999, p. 165). Prevention and Intervention With the important role familys play in the socialization of children, several programs have been implemented to prevent family contribution to delinquency or to intervene once a problem has been agnise (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 42).Years of program evaluations have produced a number of effective family-based prevention programs such as parent training on appropriate and effective child-rearing (Siegel, Welsh, Senna, 2003, p. 42). Conclusion According to the research conducted, family impact is wrong parental absence is not importantly related to juvenile delinquency. Family interactions have greater influence on delinquency. Children reared by competent, ardent parents who avoid using physical forms of punishment are unlikely to commit serious crimes either as juveniles or as adults.On the other hand, children reared by parents who dismiss or reject them are likely to be greatly influenced by their commu nity environments, which may offer opportunities and encouragement for criminal behavior. Bibliography Shoemaker, Donald J. (2010). Theories of Delinquency An Examination of Explanations of Delinquent Behavior 6th Edition. Whitehead, John T. , Lab, Steven P. (1998). Juvenile Justice An Introduction 3rd Edition. Seigel, Larry J. , Welsh, Brandon C. , Senna, Joseph J. (2002). Juvenile Delinquency Theory, Practice, and LawGreen, Helen Taylor, Gabbidon, Shaun L. (2009) Family and Delinquency Encyclopedia of Race and Crime. Spohn, Ryan E. , Kurtz, Don L. (2011). Family Structure as a Social Context for Family Conflict Unjust Strain and Serious Delinquency. Schroeder, Ryan D. , Osgood, Aurea K. , Oghia, Michael J. (2010). Family Transitions and Juvenile Justice. Elrod, Preston, Ryder, Scott A. (2005). Juvenile Justice A Social, Historical, and Legal Perspective 2nd Edition. Burfiend, throng W. , Bartusch, Dawn Jeglum. 2010). Juvenile Delinquency An Integrated Approach, Second Editi on Kierkus, Christopher A. , Baer, Douglas. (2003). Does the Relationship Between Family Structure and Delinquency Vary According to Circumstances? An Investigation of interaction Effects 1. Canadian Journal if Criminology and Criminal Justice (405-429). Leiber, Michael J. , Mack, Kristin Y. , Featherstone, Richard A. (2008). Family Structure, Family Processes, Economics, and Delinquency Similarities and Differences by Race and Ethnicity.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Health Governance in Bangladesh Essay

The main aim of this assignment is to uncover the dynamics of regime activity in the schedule climb of the wellness governance of Bangladesh through investigation of the role of deferent actors. In every insurance insurance constitution process politics play an important role in idea generation, readying and implementation. Policy reform in health sector is not divergent from different polity reforms. In the process of health indemnity making of any country, different actors try to bring the governance in their favor through playing significant role.This interaction of deferent actors in governance is k straightawayn as politics of public polity. In the complex governmental process of health sector reform viability of circumscribed put in of business, type of changes in policy reform, vision of national politics play an important role. In Bangladesh, health is one of the virtually important sectors since full health ensure more social and economic merchandis e and good quality of life. Beyond debate, priority of the health sector is forefront in the development discourse, horizontal though, health sector it is associated with multi sectoral factors and actors.Thus, making implementation of health sector policy requires interplay of actors and factors from different sectors and takes local, national, regional and international. health situation in Bangladesh public treasury today, health situation in Bangladesh is not quite satisfactory. Lack of extensive national health policy or policy vacuum, lack of policy priority backing, discontinuity of policy, lack of policy sustainership, lack of resource allocation and lack of proper uses of resources due to lack institutional arrangement and selected dominated health sector ar the main characteristics of health sector in Bangladesh.These characteristics create checkout in the process of achievement of national and international goals and ultimately health situation of common popula tion remains vulnerable. Bangladesh, being a country with small land size of 144,000 sq. km, has the burden of a vast population of 140 million. Still, with low per capita income and low literacy. Though Bangladesh has one of the strongest ne bothrks for delivering country panoptic health serve among ontogenesis countries, still the quality of work are not up to the mark and the services are uncomplete client focused nor need based.In the following tables we demonstrated the trends of basic health indicators of Bangladesh Indicators1970s (1978-80)1980s (1990)1990s (1996-972000s (2003)2007 nation crop rate2. 72. 101. 741. 54NA Infant death rate rate(per 1000)150116776652 Maternal mortality rate105. 74. 13NA Delivery care by trained2581218 Under 5 mortality rate(per 1000)2991101169465 Table 3. 1 Trends of Basic wellness Indicators of Bangladesh Heath governance systemThe government driven health care service has a earnings in all over the country from the centre to the extreme periphery, having 2 wings, one concerned with Population and Family Planning and the other concerned with Health in total. The service network has three approaches with primary care at upazilla level secondary care at district level and 3rd care at divisional level. To administer administrative activities the country has six administrative divisions and 64 districts and furthermore the districts are divided into upazilas (476 in number) and upazilas into centers (4,770).It is estimated that each of the union consist of 25,000 bulk in most cases each of the unions are again divided into nine villages. The upazila health complexes (463) acts as the first referral centers for primary health care along with one district levels hospitals at all districts (64) and most of the specialized hospitals resides at tertiary levels, mostly in Dhaka the capital of Bangladesh. thither is a standard setup for health services in an upazilla consisting of one upazilla health complex, one union he alth & family welfare center (UHFWC) at union level (4062) and fellowship clinics at village levels for every 6000 populations.It is mentionable that the biotic community clinics were established under the Health and Population Sector Program (HPSP) a donor driven mega program were not functioning till now and being revitalized in recent periods (from the regime of interim caretaker government to present AL government) aside from general health services other services i. e. minimal reproductive, maternal, and child health care services get put upd by these centers for the local people free of cost.The ratio of physicians and registered nurses to population is 241 and 136 respectively per million people and the number of hospitals available for a million people is 10, while the availability of hospital beds is one for somewhat 4000 people. Non government organizations (NGO) and confidential sectors in addition play an important role to provide health services for the country. meter of NGOs have targeted projects, program and facilities to provide antenatal care (ANC) and safe delivery care. Besides in urban areas the number of private service delivery centers and private physicians are also on the rise.Thought the private clinics get operated privately, most of the doctors working in public hospitals work thither on set out snip basis. These clinics have high charges and operate on commercial basis and people living in highest quintiles prefers such(prenominal) clinics for good quality service, which sometimes is not available in public sectors, as per the wealthiest quintiles perception. Recent politics in policy making Like many other developing country the lifetime of a public policy in Bangladesh depends on the change of political power and health policy is no exception.Visions and directions of all health policies got changed with the change of ruling government. Likewise the NHP 2000 was also interrupted as the government changed. subsequently that two attempts were do to revise the policy till 2008. This instigated disruption in policy implementation rather than bringing any positive change. Many arguments took place in favor of policy regression by the policyactors but the decision remained absolutely political. The following subsection illustrates the policy vulnerability of NHP 2000 as reflected in its reversal and formulation of NHP 2006 and 2008 and the political dynamics behind it (BHW, 2010).The first and fully operational national health policy was initiated in 1988 during the autocratic regime. In 2000 the democratic government promulgated a national health policy with five goals and objectives, in October 2001 after the Bangladesh Nationalist Party-led coalition government came to power. This new government deviated from NHP 2000 and got engaged in redrafting a new health policy, without rejecting the existing one in its entirety. This NHP 2000 was to some extent rejected when two of its essential component s related to structural transformation were made dysfunctional.The issues were i) unification of health and FP wings ii) the issue of community clinic. Key policy actors (both politicians and bureaucrats) had staid uncertainties almost the outcome of these two major reforms and believed that these two issues introduction had been politically motivated by Awami League (AL), which finally resulted in non-implementation. The following segments give an outline of how two major reforms proposed by the policy faced rejection. Integration or unification of health and FP wings the ornerstone of the NHP 2000 was formally okay earlier through the HPSS and HPSP (1998-2003), did not experience smooth implementation even during the AL arena.This unification was mean to provide health and FP services in a package for improved service efficiency by minimizing duplication and overlapping of service delivery, which did not take place due to bureaucracy. During the era of 2001-2006, reversal o f NHP 2000 became the upcountry of a whirlpool of conflicts, delays, and difference among policy players, including the bureaucrats, politicians, medical superiors and donors.At the early stage of BNP regime, the system of government held substantial power over the execution of NHP 2000. And the final decision on reversing unification was taken by the Health Secretary and the Prime Minister. The new senior level bureaucrats during this period contrasted the amalgamation and community clinics. The bureaucrats believed that internalisation would marginalize the FP section of the health sector, when it was decisive to uphold the responsibilities and sovereignty of the FP workers.The ruling BNP leaders were rigid to free the NHP 2000 since it was formulated by the previous AL government. And political leaders play a fundamental part in the policy implications during 2001-2006. It has been observed that the harmonization between the medical professionals and political leaders led to transaction with the bureaucrats and other forces and exercise more power (BHW 2010). The partial refusal of NHP 2000 can be accredited to the customs of confrontational politics and prejudice that permeates every level of the polity, rather than ideological dissimilarity often political parties.There was little ideological difference between the BNP and AL governments, as demonstrated in similar policy proposals of the two respective health policy documents. Interest group & policy issues According to the views presented by the demand respondents, numerous problems were highlighted by different levels of organizations and individuals. More than 160 organizations and individuals have submitted written demand to the Program conduct Office (PSO), HNPSP, MoHFW more prior to the preparation of the final draft. All of these demands reflected personal or professional recreates.The written comments covered roughly 70 issues and a significant number of NGO confederacy was seen. All t he policy issues were not dominant. Weight of the problems and proper express and strategy to highlight the problems play important role to pick up management of the policy makers. Among the policy issues, following were more dominant compared to others. State policy in health governance State actors and non-state actors play their role in the policy process. During the time of agenda setting interest groups try to influence the policy makers to consider their preferable issues.Like other policy process, different actors and factors wedge the generation of ideas in health policy. Till today, health situation of Bangladesh is not satisfactory in name of equity and justice. In the literature of policy ownership, source of ideas/visions is treated as one of the major indicator to measure the ownership of policy (Osman, 2006). In public policy process agenda setting is a stage where owner of ideas/vision and promoter of the ideas adopt different strategy to draw the attention of th e policy makers.In public policy making ownership can be measured with participation of different actors in policy process. In this connection role of the different actors were investigated in this development. According to Jhon Kingdons Garbage Can Model, an issue becomes agenda with three confluence streams. Different actors play their role from their own perspective in these steams. In this study it was found that three steams emerged at the same time and undecided a window. In problem stream secern production and dissemination were highly bookive for spotlight the problems of community health issues as policy agenda.In proposal stream national and international policy coherences, international and national good practices and positive attitude of donors were among other factors that supported the community clinic issues as policy proposal. Also, political support of the ruling party (AL) was also positive to highlight the community clinic and community health issues. These p roblems were highlighted in different documents of governments, NGOs and donors. Moreover, these problems were accept by bureaucrats, politicians, media people, donors and NGOs.Apart from raises, ordinary people through experiences and observations also recognized these problems. Thus, all stakeholders had good faith about these demonstrations. It can be said that three confluence streams emerged and undetermined a policy window to take a decision for establishing community clinic for solving the community health problems in Bangladesh. In every stream, different actors and factors compete vital role to highlight the issue. Evidence is critical to guide improvements in health systems and develop new initiatives.In this connection state actors and non-sate actors create evidence for highlighting the importance of a policy problem or issues. In this study effort has been made to analyze the system of evidence creation and evidence dissemination. From the systems perspective, it is important to understand how research and knowledge from unhomogeneous sources are produced and synthesized. In addition, effort has also been made to investigate how the research findings were highlighted to strengthen the demand of good health services for community people.These evidences revealed that maternal health situation and services have not reached to the gratification level. Situation of child health is still in an alarming condition for attaining national and international goals. Till now population problem is a big challenge for development of Bangladesh but evidence showed that there are human resource gaps in community level to offer proper services to the community people.Cost of health services, absenteeism and distribution of health service providers in the community level were dominant factors which play vital role to highlight the community health situation as a problem. It was found that about 160 organizations and individuals took part in the agenda setting process of the health policy. Among the participants, NGOs presence was significant considering their number. A one may wonder why a significant number of NGOs took part in the agenda setting process.The answer is a large number of NGOs are working in health sectors of Bangladesh whose armorial bearing is to highlight the common peoples rights and external support for doing policy advocacy. Majority of the participants expressed their personal, organizational or professional interest.. Health professionals from government side played significant role while creating evidences. In the absence of wide ranging government sponsored research these professional remained engaged in writing articles in journals and news papers. Due to catching system of evidence creation, bureaucrats were guided or assisted y a number of consultants and their influences are diminish nowadays.Apart from the findings of the present study many previous studies showed that during unification of two wings of MoHFW (family planning and health) IMED created evidence to analyze the context. Research findings showed that bureaucrats who were influential during the period of 1996-2001 did not able to exert influence after 2000. It is mentioned that in series(p) health secretaries were either explicitly against or remained passive over the unification process and community clinic program, resulting indistinct bureaucratic leadership within the ministry.Among the professionals who are involved with party politics, DAB (Doctors Association Bangladesh, adjust with the BNP) and SCP (Shawdhinata Chikitshak Parishad, aligned with the Awami League) played influential roles in agenda setting health issues. In this study it is found that these members who are affiliated with SCP remained vocal from the very beginning of the policy process when Health Advisor of immediate by caretaker government (2008-09) initiated the process of health policy formulation.Historical evidences showed that DAB had gr eat influence in the agenda setting during the draft preparation in 2006. In case of NHP 2010, SCP played an important role in community related agenda setting since they are well connected with the Prime Minister and Health Minister. Medical professionals, particularly physicians, were in favor of the implementation of major reforms under the NHP 2000. Previous researchers found that support of the professionals for the two major elements of the NHP 2000 was reflected in the policy document prepared by the Bangladesh Medical Association (BMA) (BHW, 2010).Donors provide pecuniary supports during evidence creation. While offering financial support, donors imposed some conditions including methodology finalization and indicators setting which ultimately, influenced the process of making evidence based policy. In addition, donors suggested government to include NGOs in this process on the ground of GO-NGO collaboration or public-private partnerships. In the community health related ev idence creation USAID, UNICEF and WHO played leading role since 2000.Thus, it can be said that donors had great influence in evidence creations about community health issues. Of course, this is not new in the health sector of Bangladesh. In case of evidence creation for Sector Wide Approach introduction donor community provide guidance and financial supports for evidence creation. When compared to equivalent government operations, NGO services generally run more efficiently and chintzily keeping closer ties with communities. For this reason, donors often favor them as entry points to accessing communities in Bangladesh, especially since the 1980s.In other words, NGOs become powerful and influential, especially because of their external sources of financial support, cooperation, and advocacy. In this regards, NGOs are considered as spokesman of donors. Civil gild/NGOs are potential actors to highlight health rights and social welfare goals through mobilization of citizen demand. Th rough different activities NGOs emphasized on the decentralization as a means of localizing policy-making, bringing decision- making closer to disfavor groups, and encouraging local participation.Also NGOs are playing roles of academics and professionals by monitoring and analyzing contextual factors. In this study we found that NGOs remained more or less equivalent in the creation of evidences. Bangladesh health watch was in the leading position to provide evidence for policy making Present Government and Health scheme According to the majority portion of respondent, the present government consists with a number of health professionals and they were very a great deal enthusiastic to promote the health facilities issues for ensuring the health rights of community people of Bangladesh.Also as a political party AL has commitment to the people to provide health services for the betterment of common people. election Manifesto of AL in choice 2008 highlighted the health issues in th e following way In order to ensure health facilities to every citizen of the country, the health policy of the erstwhile Awami League government will be reevaluated and adjusted according to the demands of the time. In the light of this policy, 18000 community clinics, established during Awami League rule, will be commissioned. Source Election Manifesto of AL in Election 2008Conclusion It can be said that proper evidence for highlighting the problem, stakeholders support in the solutions and strong political support highlighted the community health issues as issues to be considered in government actions. In evidence creation and conducting advocacy, NGOs who backed by the donors remained vocal. Top level bureaucrats also played their role with the help of consultants who were generally recommended by the donors. Finally, recognition of ruling political party played an important role in this regard.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Middle Class Dillusionment

Progressivism Middle line Disillusionment In 1958, a man named George Mowry explains s economic, social, and political members of the progressivism exploit. The progressivism movement ties in a isthmus with our ships company today and shows how history does indeed repeat itself. Mowry unwraps the honest, and bad of progressivism, but emphasizes the bad. Mowry is really trying to troop the differences between capitalism and socialism in his essay and explain why progressivism is not equitable for the come up being and future of America, which can be proven today but our economic instability and division as a nation.More importantly however Mowry displays how continuous tenses try to create, heaven on earth by their honourable actions. Mowry first describes the type of people who ar mired in progressivism. People who were involved in progressivism were the red-blooded middle club, who were intellectual and ethical climate of age, a significant cluster of prejudices and biases, and people who created great inventions, well-favored pictures, and the law. The people of the solid middle class were lawyers, newspaper, publishing, independent manufacturers, merchants, medicine, banking, and real-estate.The progressive leaders included the Chicago tribune family, and Charles Evan Hughes, if call mean anything, an overwhelming proportion of this right group came from old American stock with British origins consistently indicated. More dangerous than rich people who inherited money from their ancestors was their rich youth, Obviously this was a period, same the ones after the war of 1812 and 1850s, when energetic and incautious youth took command. This is ironic because all of their ancestors earned their money through capitalism and thats what progressives are trying to exhaust away now.Religious affiliations of the progressivism movement were the woman of the Quaker faith, and Judaic faith. Overall the progressives hated the economic system of c apitalism, believed that the wealthy are bad people who we must take away money from and give it to the masses, and most of these people are young. Joseph Medill Patterson, whose godfather founded the Tribune resigned from the Chicago commissions of public works to depart a socialist. Patterson believed it was impossible to reform a city under capitalism, he announced , it was impossible to reform the city and country under capitalism. Patterson was exemplifying capitalism vs. socialism. Capitalism is the idea that Capital is owned, operated, and traded for the purpose of generating wampum for private owners or shareholders. tension on individual profit rather than on workers or society as a whole. On the other hand socialism is according to his/her ability, to each according to his contribution. Emphasis on profit being distributed among the society or workforce in addition to receiving a wage. nowadays we can see many links between capitalism and socialism.Our government toda y is run on progressivism/ socialist ideals. President Barack Obama has several plans and ideas to help the poor by giving them the money of the rich people, and supplying them with health care (obamacare) and so on. Progressives pauperizationed to help people, they wanted to help the poor, this was not deterrent examplely prostitute but many other people saw that this was hurting our economy. Our government is socialist/ progressive because they want to lay down government control over other money and they want to have the ability to check where that money goes.But you cant just do that. If those people earned their wealth they should have all right to keep it, they should not be entitled to try to help the poor. Furthermore during this time of the progressivism movement there were many Democrat-republicans who supported the idea of progressivism. Some of those commonly known leaders are Theodore Roosevelt, Robert La Follete, Lincoln Steffens, Willam Allen White, Woodrow Wil son, John Johnson, and Hooke Smith of Georgia. Another group of people who were making a movement was populism.Populism were a group of people who were economically secured, well educated, middle class group who arose from farthermer distress in a period of great depression. According to William Allen White, populism had shaved its whiskers, washed its shirt, put on a derby, and go up into the middle class populism arose from a farmer distress in a period of acute depression. Its reforms were belly reforms. The movement was led by angry men and woman not too far removed from the Grange hall. The indigence of these farmers was heart.They believed its not fair(a) to take farm land and stick a batch of windmills on there, not only was it not fair but it also make the agriculture air lose money. In a specific case California lost money for putting up windmills in farmer land and turning the production of agriculture into a nominal size. This idea of motivation of heart also relat es to today because our motivation for supplying all of this aid comes from heart, because we believe it isnt fair that one shouldnt have medical care, or food etc.However there are just approximately gray areas to this plan that need to be filled and that is what in term ends up costing us millions. Another important point that Mowry discusses is the rise of industrial and commercial cities. The positive things about the rise of these cities are that it was, a refuge from an ugly country side and hostile natural environment, and it also provided a place of excitement and opportunities. In contrast to the positive things were the negative things.The negative things about the rise of industrial and commercial cities is that its, Devils berg of crimes, advantageful= financial workers and failures if they remained family workers. It also created an anti-urban feeling which romanticized pioneer past and agrarian background, involved western stories and virtues of the countryside. Mis s. Glasgow believed, Country was the world as God has planned it, the city as man had made it. There was definitely some mixed feelings between the citizens about urban and a city lifestyle. Mowry draw the income people had into three categories.The first category was the upper-class which we defined as, people who had more money than was good for them. The middle class were those who had just enough and the lower class were those who had much less than was morally good for them. In regards to these three categories each community made artificial arrangements by property, classical economic laws repeatedly described in the past as natural had become artificial and progressives had destroyed the popular authority behind the laws of rent, prices and wages. In response to the actions of the progressives came the enforcement and rise of labour party unions.Mowry viewed the labor unions as a menace not only to the employer but to the entire community, the small employer and many midd le class professional unions gave the same results of industrial monopoly. The labor unions made a steady decrease in opportunities for the individual operating as an individual, therefrom putting an end to open society, and putting the burden of the industrial revolution upon the middle class. In an onset to rebuttal the vicious attack of the labor union on progressives the progressives created a co operation of progressive and organized labor.This operation left only the progressives to lead. The captain of industry and labor boss was standard. Monopolistic closed in(p) shop was an abomination not to be tolerated with or without the government and progressives became a majority. The progressives were motivated by guardianship and confidence to exceed any other group. They believed that they were The good men, The better element, The moral clustering because of the fact that they believed in helping people. The progressives planned to increase the number of large hearted men t o counteract the class organization of both capital and labor.The progressives believed that gaining more support from others would make them the majority and be favored, loved, and even looked up too. The progressives wanted to eliminate capitalism and labor unions. The progressives were strong for fighting back against the mass numbers of capitalists and labor unions, but fight they did and they did not back down. Although the intentions of progressives were morally correct it was not economically correct for the success and future of America.Our government and administrators today might believe that what they are doing is right for the people but they have to also consider what is right for our nation. The way Mowry described the mentality of progressives can be used to describe the mentality of some of our administrators today, Reactionary and reform impulse, a desire to create heaven on earth, moral superiority is greater than our economy, and lastly individualism dynamism and leadership. These are the characteristics of progressives today and of 1958. It is true that history repeats itself.

Medical And Social Disability Models

INTRODUCTIONThe traditional focus on individual balk has been broadened by the modern concepts of deadening to one that recognizes that the effect of impairment is not only mutually beneficial on the underlying condition, but is as salutary dependent on the companionable and environmental factors (RACGP 2007). in that respectfore, impairment does not necessarily imply that one is modify or handicapped by it. There atomic number 18 three main types of disabilitiesPhysical constipation sharp disability Developmental disabilityIn this analysis we will focus on intellectual disability with particular emphasis on the impact of medical and favorable patterns on flock with intellectual disabilities. smart DISABILITYAn individual is considered mentally retarded or intellectually disab direct ground on the hobby criteriaWhere the individual has an intellectual functioning level (IQ) that is below 70 (Carlson 2010). Where significant limitations exist in at least two of the a daptive skill argonas (Carlson 2010). Mental retardation manifests itself before attaining the age of 18 (Carlson 2010). opposition OF MEDICAL AND SOCIAL MODELS ON PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIESTraditionally, explanations for disability were based on the medical model which tidy sums disability as a particular trait in an individual departing from the norm (Harris 2010). There is no query that the medical model has significantly impacted on mortals with intellectual disability. As pointed out by many theorists, this model is primarily responsible for numerous beliefs and practices surrounding mountain with intellectual disability.The view that intellectual disability is objectively abnormal and undesirable has given rise to a large number of tie in assumptions including the view that disability is objectively bad, is a someoneal tragedy and thus something to be pitied, prevented and if possible, cured (Harris 2010). This whimsey perhaps explains many of the practices associated with it including basisalization, involuntary sterilization, forced rehabilitation, euthanasia, social marginalization and even mercy killing(Harris 2010).In this regard, euthanasia refers to the medically aided suicide whereby the individual with intellectual disability is subjected to death with the intention of pose an end to his/her suffering (Anon 2006). Since the medical model often falls short of providing a truly assisted living and instead proposing medically assisted suicide, its associated impacts on those with intellectual disability has been heavily criticized with many of the view that sanctity of life is paramount (Anon 2006). Indeed, the independence of bodily autonomy and personal choice is radical freedom to every individual regardless of the disability.Aside from the medically assisted suicide, there is the aspect of forced sterilization. The close to famous case of this involuntary sterilization was that of a woman in Virginia known by the desig nation Carrie toll who underwent a compulsory sterilization after having been alleged to be mentally retarded (Russel 2006). Carrie Bell became the first woman to undergo a compulsory sterilization in Virginia after the Supreme act affirmed the compulsory sterilization law (Russel 2006). People with intellectual disability should however not be treated with much(prenominal) an invasive and irreversible procedure. The redress to bodily integrity and reproduction atomic number 18 fundamental to personal identity regardless of disability.Also, persons with intellectual disabilities tend to be more often isolated and institutionalise either in a nursing home, hospital or care home. Such institutionalization denies them their basic right to freedom, citizenship and participation in the community. Supporting this view, Samuel Gridley Howe, founder of the Perkins Institution in Boston (the first residential institution for people with mental disabilities), rejected the trend towards lifelong institutionalization of persons with intellectual disability and instead proposed that they be randy by being absorbed back into the community among sound and typically developing persons, as distant to their segregation away from the rest of the society (Carlson 2010).With the onset of the social model, there has been a shift in emphasis away from pathologising the individual to stressing on restrictive environments and societal attitudes (Harris 2010). This model views disability as a consequence of the environmental and societal attitudes that hinders people with impairments from interacting and stock part in the society (Harris 2010). The model maintains that persons with disabilities are prevented from participating in the society due to social inequalities, contrast, barriers to opportunities, insufficient condense systems, prejudices and negative stereotypes, and general societal attitudes (Harris 2010).The opening move that mental health problems may be der ived from social injustice such as negative stereotypes, social inequality, discrimination and oppression among others is not widely recognized (Harris 2010). It is a fact, however, that people with intellectual disability are more likely to experience such injustice and oppression as a direct consequence of their impairments (Harris 2010). They can experience a vicious circle of isolation, unemployment, p all overty, scarce social and support networks as head as insecure housing among others.With the above in mind, it is worth examining some of the non-discriminatory and anti-oppressive practices that may be assiduous by social workers in their character to mental health go.NON-DISCRIMINATORY AND ANTI-OPPRESSIVE PRACTICESInitially, most of the mental health institutions in the UK, did not meet the needs of some people while others were overrepresented in the more coercive areas such as compulsion and detention (Roberts, et. al., 2008). However, with the enactment of the Provisi ons of 2007 Mental Health Act, concerns about the diminishing contribution of social workers to mental health go have been brought to light. tenseness is now placed on passe-partout collaboration and integration with the training of social workers, which has become the key to providing critical perspectives (Roberts, et. al., 2008).PROFESSIONAL COLLABORATION AND consolidationThe widespread adoption of non-discriminatory and anti-oppressive approaches in social work and education has heightened the professional awareness and understanding of issues such as social exclusion, oppression, stigma and stereotypes (Roberts, et. al., 2008). Moreover, social workers have become more aware of their own emf oppression towards individuals with intellectual disability (Roberts, et. al., 2008). In this respect, the National Institute for Mental Health in England has reviewed the roles of a range of mental health practitioners and identified distinctive contributions from the different profes sions. Value based practice that involves working(a) with this diversity has been developed and is currently at the heart of the mental health policy and practice (Roberts, et. al., 2008). evolution SUPPORTIVE NETWORKS AND REDUCING ISOLATIONSocial workers have a key role to play in developing supportive networks for those with intellectual disability and reducing their marginalization and discrimination in the society. Providing therapeutic ablaze support and group work approaches to service cooking as nearly as promoting development of serviceable skills demonstrates the value of networking and mutual support to those with intellectual disability (Roberts, et. al., 2008). For example, a study based in blue Ireland assessed some of the benefits of therapeutic group work on children with intellectual disability (Roberts, et. al., 2008). The study identified improvements in childrens self-esteem and confidence, improved social interaction and improvements in their academic achie vement as well (Roberts, et. al., 2008).EQUALITY AND SOCIAL INCLUSIONIt is a fact that disability is often associated with all kinds of discrimination including discrimination in terms of employment and education. In terms of employment, people with mental disabilities are often considered as a hazard and are seen as having potentially greater risk of falling ill (Lago & metalworker 2010). In terms of education, the view of disability has significantly contributed to separate education for many disabled children. Emphasis has often been placed on corrective treatment for their impairments at the expense of access to mainstream curriculum and polish off with other able bodied peers (Lago & Smith 2010). Hence, in a number of circumstances, these individuals have been alienated from the society.In demonstrating its commitment to equality and social inclusion of people with mental disabilities, part of the underlying standards of the National service of process Framework for Mental He alth in the UK is to ensure equality in treatment and access to services for all, regardless of the disabilities, gender, ethnicity, age, religion or sexual orientation (Roberts, et. al., 2008). This aims at promoting social inclusion whilst addressing discrimination issues which are often associated with mental ill-health.PROMOTING INDEPENDENCE AND SELF-DIRECTED SUPPORTEqually important is the promotion of independence and self-reliant support to individuals with mental disabilities. In this context, Independence involves giving those with disabilities absolute control over the services and systems that support them (Adams et al, 2002). Key to this is the need to firmly place the principle of independent living within the support systems and at the centre of mainstream public life (Adams et al, 2002). Support services are essential to ensure the independence of these individuals. These services range from access to equipment, health services, personal assistance, independent infor mation, to support from peers and advocates (Adams et al, 2002).In order to achieve this goal, a number of organizations have been developed in the UK. The Self-Directed Support Scotland (SDSS) is one such organization which actively promotes independent living for the disabled by working alongside other organizations with the aim of supporting and championing self-governing support to the mentally disabled individuals (Adams et al, 2002). Independence may as well be promoted with the use of a person centred approach to think, which focuses on individuality and emphasizes on the importance of independence and autonomy.VALUES UNDERPINNING PERSON-CENTERED APPROACH Traditionally, people with intellectual disability have had little input into the design and speech of services that they receive (Towell & Sanderson 2004). There is however a growing body of evidence of a change in service provision towards a more person centered approach. Person centered approach refers to an approach th at enables people to take a lead in training all aspects of how social care services that they receive are delivered (Mansell and Beadle-Brown, 2004a).Professional services provided to people with disabilities have traditionally been based on the persons impairment (Smull & Lakin 2002). Professional efforts have tended to channel services to these individuals according to the category of their impairments such as sensory impairment, eruditeness difficulty or loss of mobility (Smull & Lakin 2002). This has led to a process of assessment that analyzes and quantifies the impairment and its impact based on the ability to undertake a range of tasks (Smull & Lakin 2002).The most serious consequence associated with such an assessment is that the participation of such people in ordinary community life is then seen to be dependent on their success in achieving these goals (Dowling,, 2006). Person centred planning challenges this notion of dependence. It goes beyond the needs led or holistic assessment and considers a persons aspirations as neither especial(a) by entitlement to neither services nor dependent upon professional development (Dowling,, 2006). It is concerned with the whole of someones life, not just their need for services. In this regard, person-centred planning is high on the national policy agenda in the UK (DADHC 2009).The main principles and values underpinning person centred planning includeIndependence as pointed above, a person centred planning goes beyond the needs led approach and considers a persons aspirations as neither limited by entitlement to neither services nor dependent upon professional development (DADHC 2009). Equality Person centred planning challenges the unsymmetrical power structures that have long characterized the relationship between the users and their service providers (DADHC 2009). In this regard, Sanderson al (2002) suggested that organizations need to run low from a position where they have power with se rvice users as opposed to that where they have power over them. Inclusion persons centred planning seeks to develop a better and shared understanding of the person with the disability and identify the persons aspirations and assess what support him/her might require (DADHC 2009). Choice the person must be consulted throughout the planning process and he/she chooses the setting and timing of meetings as well as who is to be involved in the process (DADHC 2009). In this regard, Sanderson (2000) considers friends and family as a part of the planning process. However, the ultimate decision lies with the service user. IMPORTANCE OF PERSON CENTRED PLANNING IN CARE DELIVERYIts importance in care delivery includes (Sanderson 2000) religious serviceing people achieve their aspirations Clarifying the supports needed to pursue these aspirations Help shape contributions from a range of service agencies by ensuring that they are directed at meeting the goals of the user. Energizes and motivate s people based on their understanding and commitment to supporting people with disabilities. CONCLUSIONThere is no doubt that the medical and social model has significantly impacted on persons with intellectual disability. Clearly, we have identified some(prenominal) practices associated with disabilities including institutionalization, involuntary sterilization, forced rehabilitation, euthanasia, social marginalization and even mercy killing. There is need for social workers to ensure non-discriminatory and anti-oppressive practices in their association with those with intellectual disabilities. A person-centred planning is equally essential in the delivery of care services to people with mental disabilities.REFERENCEAdams, et al., 2002. Anti-Oppressive Practice, Basingstoke Palgrave MacMillan Ltd 227236.Anon, 2006. Eugenics, euthanasia, and physician assisted suicide an overview for rehabilitation professionals. diary of RehabilitationCarlson, L., 2010. 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