Wednesday, August 26, 2020
Chiefs are expected to have authority aptitudes and works with representatives who require them for crucial help and help with their employments. Administrators are likewise liable for improving and supporting the presentation and work endeavors of others. The procedure of the board, which incorporates Ã¢â¬ arranging, sorting out, driving and controlling, is the procedure that is utilized by all administrators to perceive execution issues, openings, which permits them to make practical insight and accomplish execution objectives. So as to viably follow the procedure of the executives, chiefs are required to have a lot of abilities. Fundamental administrative abilities incorporate the accompanying Ã¢â¬ specialized aptitude, human expertise and calculated expertise. Specialized abilities are obtained through conventional training and professional training. Assignments, for example, bookkeeping or designing are models that requires specialized aptitudes subsequently features why preparing is significant. The possibility of human expertise is the capacity to work viably with others which complement the significance of relational abilities of a trough. In conclusion, applied aptitude is the capacity to basically and logically see circumstances and take care of issues with an answer that is of the most elevated advantage for all gatherings. From the abovementioned, it is apparent that a director requires a serious measure of aptitudes and as (Ryan, 2010) states, an administrator is one that Ã¢â¬Å"must be a handyman, yet additionally an ace of manyÃ¢â¬ . The nature of being circumspect through correspondence will presently be analyzed to uncover in the event that it is an ability that a director is brought into the world with, or would it be able to be accomplished through preparing. Many accept that viable relational abilities are something that must be conceived inside an individual, which is just part obvious. It is surely obvious that one can be brought into the world with uncommon relational abilities, however viable relational abilities is something that is earned and aced after some time. It is the experience of a director that takes into consideration compelling correspondence which at that point prompts a chivalrous supervisor. This thought is upheld by (Aimee, 2003) who accepts that in regions, for example, business tasks and undertaking the board, there is a need for specialized correspondence to have more arrangement and preparing. This underlines the way that relational abilities requires the best possible preparing and isn't an expertise that one can be brought into the world with. Being learned and mindful in dynamic is a theoretical expertise that is expected of a decent chief thus will be concentrated to uncover on the off chance that it is an aptitude that a director is brought into the world with, or would it be able to be achieved through preparing. Right off the bat, it is realized that with experience, one can improve and better adjust to abrupt circumstances during the procedure of dynamic. To abstain from being dumbfounded and get mindful rather, Ã¢â¬Å"it requires the utilization of social aptitudes to make compelling working connections all through the organization, organizing abilities to arrive at all territories of the association, and specialized information to give initiative when required (Cervone, 2008). This features so as to get calculated aptitudes, the human expertise of correspondence alongside specialized abilities is additionally required and as found in the above contention, it is apparent that human abilities require preparing and ex perience and by and by feature that administrative aptitudes are something that should be prepared, and not just an aptitude that one is brought into the world with. A director requires specialized aptitudes, for example, bookkeeping abilities to monitor conceivable task reserves and so on. Despite the fact that an administrator can assign undertakings subsequently probably won't interact with much bookkeeping forms, a director despite everything should be set up to be drawn closer with issues and furthermore needs to check there is nothing amiss with the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s financial plan. Bolstered by (Ryan, 2010) as far as library the executives, that Ã¢â¬Å"specialized preparing that was perceived as significant by imminent employersÃ¢â¬ was utilized to all the more likely instruct and outfit administrators with aptitudes that they need. Likewise, Ã¢â¬Å"librarians experience an instant preparing plan for jobs in library the executives and administrationÃ¢â¬ (Ryan, 2010) to furnish them with abilities and information that is required. Beside the three fundamental administrative aptitudes, the most significant component of a director in anyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s psyche would be initiative. The possibility of initiative is, to lead a gathering of individuals or association, or being in the situation of a pioneer, to guide and upgrade the exhibition of the gathering. By being a decent pioneer, it will at that point put you into the situation of a decent director. Individuals have a typical accept that a decent administrator must have great authority abilities and that if a chief is driving admirably, the supervisor is progressing nicely, however individuals regularly disregard the individuals who follow the pioneer, consequently the possibility of followership. Followership is fundamentally a gathering of devotees; to help the accomplishment of a pioneer or group. By expressing to not disregard the individuals who follow, it is recommending that a supervisor who has prevalent administration aptitudes didn't accomplish this all alone, however credit ought to likewise go to the person who followed (Hollander, 1992). This features initiative doesn't exist without followership. Stressing that regardless of whether one is brought into the world with unrivaled initiative aptitudes, it doesn't make a difference in light of the fact that itÃ¢â¬â¢ll be futile without your adherents, not to mention the way that nobody can be brought into the world with administration abilities. Administration can't be conceived inside an individual; it is an attribute that is created after some time, through encounters and preparing which at that point prompts a pioneer. It is eminent that there are the individuals who are not reasonable to be pioneers, yet nobody can be conceived as a pioneer, or supervisor, without the correct preparing and encounters. The following subject that will be examined will be the generalization of Ã¢â¬Å"Men are destined to be pioneers/managersÃ¢â¬ . This thought was what many accepted not all that numerous years back however is currently being refuted as we see an ascent in the quantity of ladies gaining a higher administration position all around the globe (Kusterer, 2008). This equitable emphasizes the possibility that nobody is destined to be an administrator, yet rather, anybody can turn into a chief with the right preparing. This table features the regions wherein female supervisors exceed expectations over male in and stress the way that female administrators have their solid focuses also; again underlining the possibility that anybody can turn into a decent chief notwithstanding sex contrasts with the right preparing and training. Above are the contentions that have been given this article. With the meanings of what a decent supervisor is and what they do, to why administrative abilities should be prepared and not just only a blessing. Additionally, the possibility that administration is nothing without followership, to the oust of the old generalization of Ã¢â¬Å"Men are destined to be leadersÃ¢â¬ . The entirety of the above contentions feature how no administrator can simply be brought into the world with its capacities, and that all originates from preparing and encounters that will permit them to have the right stuff of a decent director. Book index Aimee, L 2003, the aptitudes that specialized communicators need: an examination of specialized correspondence graduates, chiefs, and educational plans, Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 33, 4, pp. 303-318, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, saw 1 September 2012. Hollander, EP 1992, The Essential Interdependence of Leadership and Followership, Current Directions In Psychological Science (Wiley-Blackwell), 1, 2, pp. 71-75, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, saw 1 September 2012. KUSTERER, H 2008, Exploring the sexual orientation composing of the executives attributes in a populist setting, Scandinavian Journal Of Psychology, 49, 6, pp. 549-557, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, saw 1 September 2012. Cervone, H 2008, Good undertaking supervisors are cluefull instead of confused, OCLC Systems amp; Services, 24, 4, pp. 199-203, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, saw 1 September 2012. Ryan, M 2010, Catching On: Management Training in Depository Libraries, Reference amp; User Services Quarterly, 50, 2, pp. 119-121, Academic Search Premier, EBSCOhost, saw 1 September 2012.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Question: Examine about the Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Methodology. Answer: Presentation An enormous number of foreigners need wellbeing administrations past fundamental medicinal services gave by NHS and in this way, go to emergency clinics in their particular areas to get social insurance administrations. Such medicinal services specialist co-ops need to comprehend the social insurance desires for foreigners and displaced people to have the option to give them best human services administrations. This exploration includes an examination on an open provincial emergency clinic in Victor whose administration is looking for help in understanding the impression of settler and displaced person patients on the social insurance administrations gave by the medical clinic( Islington Council, 2016). Certain exploration questions can be utilized to control this examination to accomplish this point including: What are the administrations given by the emergency clinic to the settlers and exiles What are the segment and individual qualities of the settler and outcast patients coming to Victoria emergency clinic? How do these migrants and exiles see the human services administrations of the medical clinic? Could there be an extension for development in administrations of the emergency clinic to all the more likely deal with the necessities of these patients? Writing Review The nature of human services in UK fluctuates with the emergency clinics and districts. Residents of the nation certainly appreciate some social insurance advantages and inclinations. In any case, with regards to outsiders, rules and medicines vary. In any case, NHS professes to give free human services benefits even to migrants however government is thinking about confining this free access to social insurance for outsiders and displaced people with restricted remain in UK. As of now, NHS gives free fundamental medicinal services to transients and full NHS social insurance administration to relocating understudies. Free administrations are given by open clinics yet propelled medicinal services administrations are given at an expense. There is less data that is accessible on how these human services administrations perform with the outcasts and foreigners. Different parts of care might be investigated so as to comprehend if the patients have positive encounters of accepting these administrations. Different parts of human services that might be investigated can incorporate correspondence with social insurance experts, meds, nursing administrations, release arranging, torment the executives, and the sky is the limit from there. Past explores has demonstrated that the impression of patients about social insurance administrations is influenced by genuine administrations just as by a few different variables like socioeconomics, wellbeing condition, age, and training levels. A HCAHPSstudy on 4032 clinics of USA had contemplated the view of patients considering emergency clinics administrations and attributes of understudies. Over 63% of the patients gave positive appraisals to medicinal services administrations and 67% were available to prescribing administrations to loved ones. 74% of the patients were happy with the correspondence gotten from human services experts. There are an assortment of examined led on the patients of emergency clinics yet there is exceptionally less writing explicit to the medicinal services got by migrants and outcasts in UK and along these lines, the present examination can fill this hole for UK area by taking the instance of Victorian clinic comprehend the perspectives on outsiders and refugees(Jha, Orav, Zheng, Epstein, 2008). Research plan and direct Philosophy: A quantitative research technique would be utilized including overview for catching encounters of the outsiders and displaced people served at the Victorian clinic. Research instruments: A study would be directed on the migrant and exile patients of the emergency clinic for which a poll would be readied. This poll would include target examines asking patients regarding their encounters with the emergency clinic as for various measurements like correspondence, nursing, torment the executives, drugs, release arranging, and that's only the tip of the iceberg. They would be approached to rate the administrations considering some significant parameters to investigate their views(Chawla Sondhi, 2011). Inspecting: A helpful testing would be utilized as the investigation focuses on a solitary medical clinic with the end goal that the information would be gathered from the patients who might be accessible at the hour of the examination. Information Collection: The patients of the medical clinic would be by and by met by the analyst and a survey would be dispersed so as to get their contributions for the examination. A composed assent with revelation of the hugeness and utilization of study would be taken from them before their reactions are recorded by the researcher(Creswell, 2008). Information examination: The information got would be coded and recorded in SPSS and factual tests like T-Test and Chi-square test would be used for investigation. These tests would be utilized for contrasting different qualities of clinic benefits just as patients from various demographics(Choy, 2014). Confinements: This exploration is focused on just to a solitary medical clinic and in this manner, it may not be summed up for a more extensive cluster of patients including outsiders and displaced people. On the off chance that their perspectives must be contemplated, at that point the examination would need to be repeated for more hospitals(VisitScotland, 2013). Catalog Islington Council. (2016). NHS human services for transients with NRPF (England). NRPF. Chawla, D., Sondhi, N. (2011). Research Methodology: Concepts and Cases. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. Choy, L. T. (2014). The Strengths and Weaknesses of Research Methodology: Comparison and Complimentary among Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science , 19 (4), 99-104. Creswell. (2008). Choice of Research Design. Sage Publications. Jha, A. K., Orav, E. J., Zheng, J., Epstein, A. M. (2008). Patients' Perception of Hospital Care in the United States. The New England Journal of Medicine , 359:1921-1931. VisitScotland. (2013). Netherlands: Consumer Research. VisitScotland.
Thursday, August 13, 2020
Reading Pathway Iris Murdoch Go into any used bookstore in the U.S., and odds are you can find a dozen coffee-stained copies of Iris Murdochs work. Over her literary career she wrote several books on philosophy, giving her more than two dozen novels an interestingly lighthearted academic quality. Her works of fiction tackle complicated sexual relationships, dense philosophical concepts, and surreal moments of personal contemplation, yet the language itself is witty, free of overbearing philosophical jargon, and unrestrained. Of course, Murdochs works still have a remarkable complexity when dissected, but as a reader theres a satisfaction in reading her novels whether you choose to dig deeper or not. Considering how much work Murdoch produced over her 40 years as a novelist, theres not really a perfect route for tackling her work. However, research has suggested that Murdochs last novel, Jacksons Dilemma (1995), differs from her other works due to the onset of Alzheimers disease, which contributed to her passing four years later. Below are my book recommendations as an introduction to Murdochs work. Anyone interested in this author should begin with her first novel, Under the Net, and if youre interested in my thoughts on this book, the attached essay explains (in a somewhat rambling, pedantic manner) my thoughts on how her debut approaches the subject of nominalism. 1. Under the Net Murdochs inaugural work is a whimsical and quixotic tale of Jake Donaghue, a book translator who has also published one work of fiction. His profession is of utmost performance and comes into play throughout the novel as he comically searches for truth on a personal, professional, and spiritual level. Bits of philosophical brilliance emanate throughout the story, but Murdochs tone suggests brash indifference, which is apt considering the subject matter. Put more bluntly, she makes a lot of subtle quips about the inaccuracy of language while writing as if she doesnt give a fuck. This makes both the author and her characters more likeable, and fills the book with a refreshing and jovial air of tomfoolery. If you need more convincing, consider that in 1998 Under the Net was included on Modern Librarys list of 100 best English-language novels of the 20th century. 2. A Severed Head If you like Under the Net, odds are youll enjoy A Severed Head. Murdoch wrote several novels in between, but this is considered one of her less dense works of fiction. Candidly, its also one of her racier works, with a focus on the themes of infidelity and incest. Published as Britains sexual revolution came to full force, Murdoch develops a adulterous love hexagon that is as humorous as it is bizarre. The characters, specifically the protagonist Martin Lynch-Gibbon, will make you burst out in laughter despite the fact that their decisions are infuriating and absurd. All in all, A Severed Head is a surreal, amorous, psychological journey that reexamined marriage and sexual relationships at a time when the subject was yet to be en vogue, and the result is delightfully weird. 3. The Sea, The Sea Ive yet to read this book. I considered recommending The Sacred and Profane Love Machine, because Ive actually read parts of it and it has an awesome title, but The Sea, The Sea has a bit more street cred. Not only did this novel win the Booker Prize in 1978, but also researchers from the University College London found that of her work The Sea, The Sea had the most unusual vocabulary. This is Murdochs 19th work of fiction and its a bit longer than the other two novels mentioned here. The title comes from a poem by famous French writer Paul Valery. The subject matter, like much of Murdochs other work, tackles a peculiar romantic relationship and issues of egotism. Its been on my TBR for some time and Im hoping to tackle it soon. My buddy Donnie introduced me to Murdoch when I was a junior in college, and Ive been enjoying her books ever since. These recommendations showcase some of Murdochs more approachable works, but you certainly could tackle her bibliography anyway you so choose. Happy reading! ____________________ Like chattin up other readers and keeping track of your books on Goodreads? So do we! Come give us a follow.
Saturday, May 23, 2020
The American Dream Through Various Eyes In a country that is based around the idea that you can be anyone and do anything, one would think that most Americans all want the typical Ã¢â¬Å"American Dream.Ã¢â¬ Many would agree that when we think American Dream, we think fancy yachts, designer clothing, and big buildings, but is that really what the dream is all about? By definition, the American Dream is defined as, Ã¢â¬Å"the idea that every U.S. citizen should have equal opportunity to achieve success and prosperity through hard work and determinationÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"American DreamÃ¢â¬ ). It is the idea that someone that comes from the very bottom can make their way to the top through determination and persistence. But what is considered to be Ã¢â¬Å"the topÃ¢â¬ is hard toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Perhaps the dream of a wealthy individual is constant improvement and expansion of their wallet, but also to find gratitude with what they have. Contrary to the upper class, the middle class retains an opportunity for growth and therefore believes in the American Dream. However, their dreams shy away from the common view of the American Dream and instead revolve around their values and wants. Primarily, the middle class is defined as having an income between $46,960 and $140,900, although the economic boundaries that make up the middle class constantly varies (Luhby). Besides income, the middle class also can be identified by occupation, net worth, or education, but every middle class citizen, no matter how they are identified, experience similar circumstances (Elkins). The majority of the middle class yearn to have a nice home and secure job, along with extra money to enjoy their interests and hobbies. In addition, they strive to set aside savings for their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s transition into the working world or future education. Although the middle class has more opportunities than lower class citizens, they still encounter their own struggles. For many middle class families, hard times come and go while they try to maintain a comfortable living situation. Money for them does not come as easily as it does for the upper class, who typically have enough to constantly feel stable. Nonetheless, the middle class obtains enough to live moreShow MoreRelatedThe Great Gatsby - Demise Of The American Dream883 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesGreat Gatsby - Demise of the American Dream The Great Gatsby (1925) is a highly symbolic novel written by F. Scott Fitzgerald on 1920 s America, an era of great prosperity and material excess. Its theme mainly deals with the disintegration of the American Dream due to decayed social and moral values. The American Dream is a set of ideals in which freedom includes the right for prosperity, success, and social upward mobility for all Americans which can be achieved through hard work and dedication.Read MoreThe Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald845 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesGatsby, colors represent a variety of symbols that relate back to the American Dream. The dream of being pure, innocent and perfect is frequently associated with the reality of corruption, violence, and affairs. GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s desire for achieving the American Dream is sought for through corruption (Schneider). The American Dream in the 1920s was perceived as a desire of wealth and social standings. Social class is represented through the East Egg, the West Egg, and the Valley of the Ashes. The two eggsRead MoreIdentifying And Surveying F. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby1675 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestime, discussing and paying attention to the social, historical, cultural and political discourses within the text. F.Scott Fitzgerald constructs a variety of truths throughout the novel, the two truths that where clearly noticeable where Ã¢â¬Å"The American dreamÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Old and New MoneyÃ¢â¬ which greatly supported the normalities of the era, these two topics will be discussed later in the piece. But let s start by recapping a brief understanding that is this novel. F. Scott FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s novel The GreatRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald s The Great Gatsby Essay1284 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe author uses various colors and physical places such as the green light at DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s dock as GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s unattainable dream of being with Daisy while the Eyes of T.J Eckleburg in the valley of ashes to portray as GodÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes as well as the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s eyes watching Gatsby yearn for his dream only for it to be crushed with a bullet and killed. The novel also illustrates how the American dream can attain oneÃ¢â¬â¢s wealth and glory but at a hefty price of falling for greed and corruption through GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s fall.Read MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1318 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesvalley of ashes, and the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg. The green light represents Jay GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s hopes, as well as his dreams, for the future. Because many people strive to become rich in The Great Gatsby, the result is moral and social decay. The valley of ashes represents social and moral decay, and it also represents the predicament of poor because the poor live in the filthy ashes and lose their passion as a result from living in the ashes. Lastly, I believe the eyes of Doctor T.J. Eckleburg,Read MoreThe Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald1330 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesobjects helps to connect the sign ificance of the story on a deeper level and eventually reveal its literal meaning. Many symbols portrayed throughout The Great Gatsby, such as the green light, the eyes of Dr. T.J. Eckleburg, GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s Mansion and the weather help to uncover one of the main themesÃ¢â¬âthe American Dream. First, the green light located at the end of Tom and Daisy BuchananÃ¢â¬â¢s dock, in East egg, plays a considerable role in GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. In chapter 1, we first encounter GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s attraction withRead More Symbolism in The Great Gatsby Essay867 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pageshis thematic interest in his novel of The Great Gatsby. In the Great Gatsby, F. Scott Fitzgerald uses various colors, objects, and gestures as symbols to portray the lack of moral and spiritual values of people and the different aspects of society in the 1920s. One use of symbolism Fitzgerald uses is the green light at the end of DaisyÃ¢â¬â¢s dock. He uses it to represent GatsbyÃ¢â¬â¢s hopes and dreams for the future. In chapter one, Gatsby associates the light with Daisy when he reached toward it in theRead MoreExpanding The American Dream By Marco Rubio1144 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesExpanding the American Dream Ã¢â¬Å"The American Dream is a term that is often used but also often misunderstood. It isn t really about becoming rich or famous. It is about things much simpler and more fundamental than thatÃ¢â¬ (Marco Rubio). The American Dream was a great term to attract many immigrants to this country in the belief that families can restart and reach their dreams. The idea that one can radically change their life and become Ã¢â¬Å"richÃ¢â¬ was extremely attractive and can give incentive into movingRead MoreThe American Dream By Dolores Hayden871 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe American Dream The growth of cities, and their subsequent decay due to a capitalistic order followed by attempts to renew city life along with an exodus of those with means and/or appropriate skin color assisted by policy instruments. With the racial segregation obtained as a byproduct (or maybe product) of the chain of events would summarize the assigned readings in a nutshell. To elaborate from Dolores HaydenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"From the Ideal City to the Dream HouseÃ¢â¬ the Jeffersonian ideal of democracy favoredRead MoreF. Scott Fitzgerald : The Jazz Age And The Great Gatsby1364 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesknown writers of the twenties. The American writer is given credit for the term Ã¢â¬ËJazz Age,Ã¢â¬â¢ immortalizing the glamorous world of wild parties of the upper social classes. With FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s work being described as poetic, it often contain underlying social or capitalistic characteristics rooted in spectacular imagery. The various aspects of FitzgeraldÃ¢â¬â¢s work allow for analysis on several levels and from differing perspectives, while functioning as a mirror through which to view society, values, and
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Frederick the Great, an eighteenth century Prussian king known for his tyrannical rule, once stated, An educated people can be easily governed. When taken in the context in which he spoke, that of a ruler who demanded complete domination over his subjects, one would take his quote with only one meaning, that more intelligent people can be easily governed. Ignoring the speaker and his reputation, however, this quote then becomes open for discussion. One could read these words and believe that Ã¢â¬Å"easily governedÃ¢â¬ referred to a people who tend to be more law abiding and can therefore be more easily controlled through a system of punishments. This could also be applied in a way to state that those individuals would be less likely to riseÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These well-educated individuals will watch the newscasts, read the articles on governmental action or inaction, and listen to the radio hosts who speak on the issues and seem to support their way of thinking. They will argue with friends, family or co-workers and utter phrases like I cant believe (insert politician name here) did that or we really need to fix . . . or We need to do something about . . . because they cant get away with it. Tying in the previous argument that well-educated individuals have more to lose and are therefore, more law-abiding, these individuals will do little more than debate. These individuals value their socioeconomic status too much to risk it by protesting in the streets demanding for the resignations of corrupt politicians or politicians who act against the Constitution. This makes for a more easily governed society because they will not rise up against the government. Nothing negative could be said about a law abiding society. Society would operate much more smoothly without the existence of crime. An interpretation of the quote above leads one to believe that if only society were well educated, its members would think before engaging in criminal be havior and logically, there would be an end to crime. Is that really the case though? Based on the eventsShow MoreRelatedIs Sociology a Science1655 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesstudy of sociology cannot and should not be seen as scientificÃ¢â¬ To what extent do sociological arguments and evidence support this view? (33 marks) The debate about whether sociology can be represented as a science has existed for many years. Comte; who first used the word sociology argued that sociology should be based on the methodology of the natural sciences. He argues that the application of natural science methodology to the study of society would produce a Ã¢â¬Ëpositive science of societyÃ¢â¬â¢, showingRead MoreHow Buyer Behavior Affects Marketing Activities in Different Buying Situations1000 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesextremely important to Sunshine. Consumer behavior involves study of how people buy, what they buy, when they buy and why they buy. It blends the elements from psychology, sociology, anthropology and economics. It also tries to assess the influence on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in general. With that knowledge, Sunshine will know exactly what customers are lacking to increase the value of Nightwish, from which, the company will attract customers,Read MoreThe Foxhole Court, By Writer Nora Sakavic Essay1193 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesstudies the relationships between individuals and society and between markets and the state, using a diverse set of tool and methods drawn largely, from economics, political science and sociology. The term political economy is derived from the Greek polis, meaning city or state and oikonomos meaning one who manages a household estate. Political economy thus can be understood as the study of how a country Ã¢â¬â the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s household Ã¢â¬â is managed or governed, taking into account both political and economicRead MoreSociology as a Perspective 1332 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessociological perspective is described as the link between societal events and an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s life. Sociological perspective relates to sociological imagination, which was coined by C Wright Mills to illustrate the type of insight brought by the field of sociology (Isaksen undated). These concepts enlighten peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s unde rstanding on the interactions between history and biography. Sociological imagination is based on the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s capability to be objective and understand the link between social structuresRead MoreDemocracy And Politics Of South Korea1387 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagessaid that many countries have had military dictatorship which is a common government for a developing country. A developing country, above all, might want to develop their economy, so they endure dictatorship because the dictator can make a decision easily and quickly (Park, C. D. Shin, D., 2006). It also happened in South Korea 50 years ago. In spite of military dictatorship in the past, South Korea has the most successfully established democracy in Asia (Whitehead, L., 2002). There is a specialRead MoreEmergence Of Structural Functionalism. Structural Functionalist1402 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEmergence of Structural Functionalism Structural functionalist theories are grounded in the thought that society and family are congenial entities and, as such, the harmony between the two is the natural state of people, as found in Leeder (2004). Structural functionalism, and the viewing of the family as a social system, is at the core of the family process and other theories. To understand structural-functionalism, we must first understand the coalescing theories in which it is rooted, functionalismRead MoreShould God Have Allowed For Marry Men?1223 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesrace and the raising of children. Another example that shows that many people believe that God made homosexuals to be homosexualÃ¢â¬ ¦ Marriage is not just any relationship between human beings. It is a relationship rooted in human nature and thus governed by natural law. Natural lawÃ¢â¬â¢s most elementary precept is that Ã¢â¬Å"good is to be done and pursued, and evil is to be avoided.Ã¢â¬ By his natural reason, man can perceive what is morally good or bad for him. Thus, he can know the end or purpose of eachRead MoreChanging Culture of the Church Essay1682 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWe live in a society today that is vastly different to the one the previous generation grew up in; priorities have changed with people finding completely new ways to spend their time, people have an barrage of options presented to them with every decision and everyone seems to find someone else to blame for the current situation. 50 years ago this country was experiencing a cultural way of thinking known as modernity, this was described very well by Anthony Giddens here; Ã¢â¬Å"Modernity is a shorthandRead MoreThe Model Of Reflection ( 1988 )1665 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthat ensures the service requirements of rural and remote communities are met should be implemented. (Humphreys Walkerman, 2008). This would involve crucial multidisciplinary practices being easily accessible in these communities. Step 3 Chapter 8 of Second Opinion: An Introduction to Health Sociology has helped to expand my original reflections of the reasons the Aboriginal communityÃ¢â¬â¢s need for greater health equity, by comparing Indigenous health outcomes with those of non-Indigenous AustraliansRead MoreCHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN RURAL SOCIETY OBJECTIVES At the end of this session, you should be able2800 Words Ã |Ã 12 PagesCHARACTERISTICS OF INDIAN RURAL SOCIETY OBJECTIVES At the end of this session, you should be able to explain: 1. Introduction 2. Indian society 3. Characteristics of the Indian rural society 4. Characteristics of various societies Ã¯Æ'Ë Features of the traditional society Ã¯Æ'Ë Features of modern society Ã¯Æ'Ë Features of the post-modern society 5. Conclusion INTRODUCTION In India the significance of the rural sociology earned identification after independence. The agrarian context takes exceptional status both
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The results indicate that DY and EY ratios has direct positive association with stock return where as B/M ratio has significant negative relationship with stock return. Therefore we can say that the above mentioned ratios are able to predict stock returns, furthermore it can be seen that as compare to dividend yield and earning yield the ratio of book to market has the highest predictive power. Moreover when we combine these financial ratios the predictability of stock returns will enhance. We will write a custom essay sample on Financial Ratios and Stock Return Predictability or any similar topic only for you Order Now Keywords: Financial ratios, Stock return, Karachi Stock Exchange, Dividend Yield, Earning Yield. 1. Introduction Stock Market plays a very significant role in the economic growth of a country. According to A. Schrimpf (2010) there is significant economic aftermath of the existence of stock return predictability. S. Kheradyar et al, (2011), Ã¢â¬Å"The Analytics of Economic Time SeriesÃ¢â¬ , states that in stocks market share prices move randomly i. e. on certain day share prices are like to go down as they were like to up. Such random behavior worried some of the financial economists and followed by further research. Hence such random movement of share prices lead to a hypothesis called Random Walk Hypothesis. Random walk hypothesis suggest that it is difficult to predict share prices because stock prices evolved, now it will be showing upward trend but after some time such might be showing downward trend. Hence predicting 100% accuracy of stock return is almost impossible. In contrast to Random Walk Behavior is efficient market hypothesis. According to efficient market hypothesis share prices are fairly priced in the stock market or prices of stock demonstrates information in the market is widely and equally available to all and no one in the market can outperform or can beat the market. With the passage of time researchers tries to find out most accurate variables for predicting stock prices, some were tend towards financial and some were towards profitability ratios i. e. book to market ratio, price to earnings ratio, 1 Research Journal of Finance and Accounting ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online) Vol 3, No 10, 2012 www. iiste. org dividend yield, etc some were tend towards cash flow ratios like price to cash flow ratio, cash burn ratio, etc and some focused on macroeconomic variable like interest rate, law and order situation and inflation rate etc. In this research article we have investigated 3 above mentioned ratios to determine whether they predict stock returns. This research study has used the stock return and the above mentioned financial ratios association at two samples as the foundation for the formulation of Eight hypotheses. On the grounds of their appropriate regression models the eight hypotheses are divided into two sets. In this study we have used the two models of simple and multiple regressions to apply Predictive regression; it is an important tool for predicting stock returns. A set of panal data is used for the formulation of these two models. For tackling the problem of heteroskedasticity and non-normality distributed residuals, we applied generalized least squares method. 2. Literature Review Campbell and Shiller (1988) stated in their study that as dividend yield has the ability to confine expected return and expectation about growth in dividend yield so dividend yield is good predictor of stock return. Chan, L. Hamao, Y. Yakonishok, J. (1991), found that in Japanese market fundamental variables like dividend yield, price to earnings ratio, book to market ratio and firmÃ¢â¬â¢s size have significant impact on expected earning/returns of stocks. They notify that there is indirect relationship between earning yield and stocks returns in Japan. In comparison of the size of the firm and earning yield, B/M and dividend yield (cash flow yield) are significantly related with returns of stocks. They further added that an important variable both economically and statistically is book to market ratio and this need to be observe because either the afterward half of the sample is judged or for the first time test is applied the book to market ratio shows it continuation. Mukerji, S. Dhatt, M. Kim, Y. 1997), on Korean Stock market for a period of 1982-1992 establish a direct relationship between return of stocks and D/E, S/P and B/M, moreover an indirect relationship between size of firm and return of stocks. They demonstrated that P/E ratio is less trustworthy indicator than B/M and S/P. Beta is a week proxy for assessment of risk when compare with debt to equity ratio. B/M and S/P are responsible for the direct relationship between re turn of stocks and debt to equity. However a P/E and B/M ratio becomes the base for indirect relationship between return of stocks and size of the firm. Kothari and Shanken (1997) found for US market that dividend yield and book to market ratios have dependable proof for expected real return over a period 1926-1991, and there lies a track of time series variations. Pontiff and Schall (1998) stated that as for predicting power is concerned book to market ratio has some predictability power for predicting stock returns. Lewellen (2002) conducted his study in US he found that predictability power of dividend yield for predicting stock returns is more than P/E and B/M ratios. Ang, A. , and Bekaert, G. , (2006), in their studies tried to forecast interest rate and stock returns with the help of predictive power of dividend yield. They found for short term forecasting, dividend yield predictive power is more than the long term forecasting. But as for the expected growth of cash flow prediction is concerned than dividend yield is a good predictive variable. Akyol, A. (2006), Ã¢â¬Å"analyzed the effect of firmÃ¢â¬â¢s size, beta, and book-to-market value on the stock returns in Istanbul stock exchange. He used data from July 1993 to December 2005 for Istanbul Stock Exchange and used Fama and French (1992) methodology to construct portfolios represented accurately by size-beta and then size-book-to-market, he found that book to market and Beta of a firms have no effect on the stock returnÃ¢â¬â¢s in Istanbul stock exchange. Size of the firm was the only variable which was negatively related to the stock returns in Istanbul stock exchange. He also found that book to market, size and beta is not related with January effects. Hjalmarsson, E. (2004), in his study tried to find out Global stock returns predictability. He took twenty thousand monthly observation form forty international stock markets. In which 24 were of developed economy and 16 were of developing economy. However his study showed that dividend yield and price to earnings ratio has little power of predictability and defends his conclusion by adding that international result is showing deviation from traditional view because the method use internationally may not count for determination of variables. 2. 1 Hypotheses H1: return of stock and DY has no association in time (t) and (t-1) respectively in sample one. H2 return of stock and EY has no association in time (t) and (t-1) respectively in sample one. H3: return of stock and B/M has no association in time (t) and (t-1) respectively in sample one. H4: return of stock and DY has no association in time (t) and (t-1) respectively in sample two. H5: return of stock and EY has no association in time (t) and (t-1) respectively in sample two. H6: return of stock and B/M has no association in time (t) and (t-1) respectively in sample two. 2 Research Journal of Finance and Accounting ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online) Vol 3, No 10, 2012 ww. iiste. org H7: return of stock and DY, EY, B/M combination has no association in time (t) and (t-1) respectively in sample one. H8: return of stock and DY, EY, B/M combination has no association in time (t) and (t-1) respectively in sample two. 3. Research Methodology In order to check predictability power of earning yield, dividend yield and book to market ratios for predicting stock returns the study has taken a sample of 100 firms for a period of 2005-2011. We have applied certain screening criteriaÃ¢â¬â¢s for companies to be included in the sample. First, the firm must be listed on the KSE before Jan 1st 2005. 2nd, for more than twelve months a stock must not be deferred. 3rd, for the study period of seven years a company stock must not be delisted. 4th, data must be available for all sample firms and variables. Finally, for a period of more than twelve months the dividend yield of firms must not be zero. The study has divided the selected firms into two equal samples, which will reduce the effects of random sampling errors and for the predictive regression two samples produce different estimation. The study is based on secondary data, which is collected from, Ã¢â¬Å"State Bank of PakistanÃ¢â¬ , companyÃ¢â¬â¢s annual reports, business recorder and from Ã¢â¬Å"Karachi stock exchangeÃ¢â¬ . Following S. Kheradyar et al, (2011) this study includes stock returns as dependent variable while dividend yield, earning yield and B/M ratios has been taken as independent variables. 4. Measurement of Variables 4. 1 Stock Return Following Lewellen (2001) and S. Kheradyar et al, (2011) we have used stock return as dependent variable. Stock return is measured by dividing capital gain along with dividend per share on market price per share. Following is the formula for stock returns. SRi = DPs + capital gain/market price 4. 2 Book to Market Ratio For finding value of company by comparison of market value of a share to its book value, study tends towards book to market ratio. For finding book value of a firm the study divide equity of a firm by its total number of outstanding shares. As for market price is concerned study tend towards the ongoing price of share in stock market. If a firm offer high return and having high book value than its market value, the firm is riskier and in future returns of stock will be lowered than today. The following formula is used for calculating book to market value: B/M = Book Value per share Market value per share Lewellen (2001) states that as compare to P/E ratio B/M has higher predictive power for predicting stock return. But when study compare B/M ratio with dividend yield than dividend yield is good forecaster than B/M ratio. 4. 3 Dividend yield Following S. Kheradyar et al, (2011) second independent variable in this study is Dividend yield which is calculated as dividing dividend per share on market price per share. If market price is lower than dividend yield will be higher and give a riskier signal for investment. Contrast to higher dividend yield is low dividend yield; such happen when market price per share is higher than dividend yield and gives an optimistic view for investment. The following formula demonstrates how to calculate dividend yield: Dividend Yield (%) = (Dividend per Share / Market rate per share) x 100 4. Earning Yield The empirical literatures lay foundations of the predictive power of earning yield on stock return, and find out the association between earning yield and stock return is considerable, because earning yield plays as a risk factor in relation with stock return. Moreover, the earning yield can demonstrate the efficiency of market that has an important role in emerging markets, thus this study uses earning yield as the empirical predictor of stock return. Following S. Kheradyar et al, (2011) we have measured earning yield as earning per share divided by price of share. 5. Regression Model In this research article we have investigated three financial ratios EY, DY and B/M to determine whether they predict stock returns. This research study has used the stock return and the above mentioned financial ratios association at 3 Research Journal of Finance and Accounting ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online) Vol 3, No 10, 2012 www. iiste. org two samples as the foundation for the formulation of Eight hypotheses. On the grounds of their appropriate regression models the eight hypotheses are divided into two sets. In this study we have used the two models of simple nd multiple regressions to apply Predictive regression; it is an important tool for predicting stock returns. A set of panal data is used for the formulation of these two models. For tackling the problem of heteroskedasticity and non-normality distributed residuals, we applied generalized least squares method. Following S. Kheradyar et al, (2011) we have used panal models to formulate predictive regressions. Hence we have used simple regression model to test the first 6 hypothesis which are formulated on the basis of association between each financial ratio and future stock returns. The simple regression model has the following form: SR it = ÃÅ¸0 + ÃÅ¸i Xi (t-1) + eit Where, SR it= in time period t, the return of ith stock, ÃÅ¸0= the estimated constant, ÃÅ¸i= ith stock predictable coefficient, Xi (t-1) = in period t-1 financial ratios of the ith stock, eit = error term. Similarly following S. Kheradyar et al, (2011) we have used multiple regression model to test the other two hypotheses H7 and H8, these two hypotheses are formulated on the basis of relationship between combined financial ratios and future stock returns. The model has the following form: SR it = ÃÅ¸0 + ÃÅ¸i1 DYi (t-1) + ÃÅ¸i2 EYi (t-1) + ÃÅ¸i3 B/Mi (t-1) + eit Where, SR it= in time period t, the return of ith stock, ÃÅ¸0= the estimated constant, ÃÅ¸i1= for DY the Ith stock predictable coefficient, ÃÅ¸i2= for EY the Ith stock predictable coefficient, ÃÅ¸i3= for B/M the Ith stock predictable coefficient, DYi (t-1) = is ith stock DY factor in period of time t-1, EYi (t-1) = EY factor of ith stock in period of time t-1, B/Mi (t-1) = B/M factor of ith stock in t-1 time period, eit = error terms. 6. Results and Discussion For the first 6 hypothesis the predictive regression results are summarized in Table 1. The coefficient of dividend yield in Table 1 demonstrates a positive relationship of dividend yield in period (t-1) and stock returns in period (t) in both samples that is when dividend yield increases by one unit it will cause an increase of 0. 021 and 0. 010 units in stock returns of two samples respectively. As for the p-value of coefficient of Dividend yield is concerned it is 0. 016 in sample one which is less than 0. 5, so the relationship is statistically significant and the null hypothesis H1 is rejected, however in sample two the association is insignificant so hypothesis H4 cannot be rejected. The coefficient of earning yield in Table 1 demonstrates a positive relationship of earning yield in period (t-1) and stock returns at period (t) that is when earning yield increases by one unit it will cause an increase of 0. 013 and 0. 008 units in stock returns in the two samples respectively. As for the p-value of coefficient of earning yield is concerned it is 0. 19 and 0. 010 in the two samples respectively which is less than 0. 05, so the relationship is statistically significant, therefore we will reject hypothesis H2 and H5. The negative coefficient of Book to market value in table 1 notifies an inverse relationship of B/M and stock returns in both samples that is if B/M ratio increasing the stock return will be decreasing and vice versa. The p-value of coefficient of B/M value 0. 000 indicates that the relationship is statistically significant in both samples, so hypothesis H3 and H6 have been rejected. S. Kheradyar et al, (2011) found that DY has negative influence on stock return, and a positive association between EY and stock return. He also found a positive impact of B/M on stock return in (2) (1) 4 Research Journal of Finance and Accounting ISSN 2222-1697 (Paper) ISSN 2222-2847 (Online) Vol 3, No 10, 2012 www. iiste. org sample 2 but a negative one in sample 1. It can also be noticed by looking at the adjusted R-square that B/M has the highest predictive power, and this result is also supported by S. Kheradyar et al, (2011). Insert Table 1 Here) Now we will test to see whether stock return predictive power increases with the combination of EY, B\M and DY. We will reject H7 and H8 because it can be seen in Table 2 that the predictive regressions are statistically significant. Thus we can say that stock return can be predicted by the combination of EY, B\M and DY. Also we can say that as compare to the other two ratios, the variations of the ratio of book to market has greater i mpact on stock return, because in both samples it has the highest coefficient. Similarly by looking at the adjusted R-square we can say that in the two samples stock return predictive power increases when the combination of EY, B\M and DY increases. (Insert Table 2 Here) 6. Conclusion Literature regarding predictability of stock returns has changed over the last 20 years. With evolution researchers and economists separated price to earnings ratio, dividend yield, inflation, and book to market ratio, beta, industry returns, interest rate, and size of firms from amongst other variables which were considered important for predicting return of stocks. Presently strong evidences are present regarding variables for predicting stock returns. Analysis showed that financial ratios have significant power of predictability for forecasting returns of stock and they predict future stock return of Pakistani market, and B/M has higher predictive power as compare to other ratios. Similarly the predictability of stock return is enhanced by the combination of financial ratios. References A. Schrimpf, (2010). International Stock Return Predictability under Model Uncertainty. Journal of International Money and Finance, 29: 1256-1282. S. Kheradyar, I. Ibrahim, and F. Mat Nor, (2011). Stock Return Predictability with Financial Ratios. International Journal of Trade, Economics and Fiance, 2(5): 391-396. J. Y. Campbell, and R. J. Shiller, (1988). Stock Prices, Earnings and Expected Dividends. Journal of Finance, 43(3): 661-676. Chan, L. Hamao, Y. Lakonishok, J. (1991). Fundamental and Stock Returns in Japan. The Journal of Finance, 17391764. Mukerji, S. Dhatt, M. Kim, Y. , (1997). A Fundamental Analysis of Korean Stock. Financial Analyst Journal, 53: 7580 Kothari, S. P. , Jay A. Shanken, (1997). Book-to-Market, Dividend Yield and Expected Market Returns: A TimeSeries Analysis. Journal of Financial Economics 44: 169-203. J. Pontiff, and L. Schall, (1998). Book-to-Market Ratios as Predictors of Market Returns. Journal of Financial Economics, 49: 141Ã¢â¬â160. Lewellen, J. , (2002). Predicting Returns with Financial Ratio. National Bureau of Economics Research, MIT working paper no. 4374-02 Ang, A. and Bekeart, G. , (2006). Stock Returns Predictability. The Review of Financial Study, 651-707. E. F. Fama and K. French, (1992). The Cross-Section of Expected Stock Returns. Journal of Finance, 47: 427-465 Lewellen, J. , (2001). Predicting Returns with Financial Ratios. Journal of Financial Economic, 209-235. How to cite Financial Ratios and Stock Return Predictability, Papers
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Question: Discuss about the Effective Managemen Practices of BVC. Answer: Introduction In the modern era,effective management practices play a very important role in success and growth of an organization(Wheelen Hunger, 2017). Furthermore, appropriatemanagement supports in carrying out the smooth flow of all operations and attain the desired objectives(Chmiel, Fraccaroli, Sverke, 2017). The present research report is based on Bow Valley College (BVC) which was founded in the year 1965 in Canada. The study highlights vision and mission of the selected college. Apart from this, a purposed organization structure for BVC is also mentioned in the present research report. Vision and mission of BVC The vision of Bow Valley College is to become the leading innovative college in the world. Furthermore, its vision emphasizes on delivering quality education which can help students to learn better living and live a better life in future (Comprehensive Institutional Plan - Bow Valley College, 2012). On the other side of this, the mission of BVC is to contribute to overall development of community and economy through its innovative adult education programs. Resources which BVC have to support its vision and mission In the present scenario, every company requires adequate human, technological and financial resources to achieve its goals and objectives(Rees Smith, 2017). It can be stated that BVC has adequate resources which support the organization to attain its mission and vision statement. Here, the organization is available with talented, qualified and skilled faculty or teaching staff who impart quality and innovative education to all students. On the other side of this, the organization is also possessing adequate technological resources to deliver education and other related services. Wireless internet, classroom computers, data projects are some technological tools which the college is using. All the mentioned above resources support BVC in delivering quality education and accomplish its mission and vision. BVC competitive advantage Nowadays the competition among universities and colleges in the country has become highly intense, and it is not easy for colleges to sustain in the long run (Naranjo-Valencia, Jimnez-Jimnez, Sanz-Valle, 2016). Furthermore, colleges and universities also face issues linked with attracting and enrolling the desired number of students in a particular academic year (Bolman Deal, 2017). However, it can be argued that there are certain strategies which help the college to gain the competitive advantage over other organization in the marketplace. For example, BVC focuses on delivering niche education programs, and it helps the college to get an advantage over others. Experience and supportive teaching staff is another factor which provides the competitive advantage to BVC. Apart from this, BVCs core values such as respect for diversity, learner centered approach, integrity; concern for people also contributes a lot in getting an advantage over other universities. Target student for BVC The college has mainly targeted adults who belong to different economic, cultural, social, geographical background. The programs and teaching strategies are also developed in such a way that the target students do not have any sort of inconvenience while learning. Apart from this, international learners, disabled learners, employed, underemployed personnels are also targeted by BVC. Purposed Organizational structure Organizational structure can be defined as the term which is used to define the allocation of task, power, and authority within a business enterprise. Furthermore, horizontal and vertical are the two common types of structures which are used in colleges and universities (Gelfand, Aycan, Erez, Leung, 2017). For a college like BVC, the horizontal organizational structure is more suitable and effective. Mentioned below is the proposed organizational structure for BVC Rationale behind proposed structure The main reason behind proposing horizontal organization is that it uses an employee centered approach to leadership. It means the use of mentioned above structure will support BVC in encouraging views and opinions of workers at the time of drafting policies and strategies. It can be stated that considering the view of staff members will also result in developing the sense of satisfaction among teachers and will contribute to overall academic success (Holmlund, Kowalkowski, Biggemann, 2016). On the other side of this, the horizontal organizational structure is more suitable for BVC because it will promote team work within the college and thus, will help in an accomplishment of all objectives. The college will be able to develop a high level of the corporation within all its departments by making use of the horizontal organizational structure. Other than this, the suggested structure will also enhance the overall motivational level and productivity of teaching staff by providing a hi gh degree of job satisfaction among them. Conclusion From the above carried out research report, it can be concluded that factors such as skilled teaching staff, values and focus on niche teaching programs have resulted in providing the competitive advantage to BVC. Furthermore, it can also be inferred that horizontal organizational structure is more suitable for college such as BVC as it offers the high degree of satisfaction to staff members and thus, will contribute to long term growth of the college. References Bolman, L. G., Deal, T. E. (2017). Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. New York : John Wiley Sons. Chmiel, N., Fraccaroli, F., Sverke, M. (2017). An Introduction to Work and Organizational Psychology: An International Perspective. New York: John Wiley Sons. Comprehensive Institutional Plan - Bow Valley College. (2012, May). Retrieved August 1, 2017, from bowvalleycollege ca website : file:///C:/Users/Admin/Downloads/BVC_CIP_forWEB_v4%20(1).pdf Gelfand, M. J., Aycan, Z., Erez, M., Leung, K. (2017). Cross-cultural industrial organizational psychology and organizational behavior: A hundred-year journey. Journal of Applied Psychology , 514. Holmlund, M., Kowalkowski, C., Biggemann, S. (2016). Organizational behavior in innovation, marketing, and purchasing in business service contextsAn agenda for academic inquiry. Journal of Business Research , 2457-2462. Naranjo-Valencia, J. C., Jimnez-Jimnez, D., Sanz-Valle, R. (2016). Studying the links between organizational culture, innovation, and performance in Spanish companies. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicologia , 30-41. Rees, G., Smith, P. (2017).Strategic human resource management: An international perspective. New York: Sage. Wheelen, T. L., Hunger, J. D. (2017).Strategic management and business policy. New York : Pearson.