Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Enron Case Study Summary

Enron Case Study The case of Enron is a fascinating one. United States is a country where auditing and accounting principles are so strong. How can something take place on such high level in the United States? The Enron case demonstrates the need to reform the accounting and corporate governance practices in the United States. Moreover, the Enron case made government officials to pay close attention to deregulated energy market. Some of the aspects that struck me are discussed below. One of the aspects that struck me was the vision of the top management.Enron was in the business of energy, but Kenneth Lay built management team of MBAs, not individuals specialized in gas and energy field. My view is that top management has to have a clear vision. It seemed that Kenneth Lay vision of the company was distorted. Enron transformed from an energy company into an investment company. Hence, the management team was comprised of traders and investment bankers who had very little knowledge of t he energy business. As the business model of Enron changed so did the corporate culture. The culture was â€Å"Get it done. Get it done now. Reap the rewards. The new business was the buying and selling of commodities. The employees were rewarded for business deals regardless of long-term consequences. I feel this kind of reward system is not beneficial to companies; it is very short-term view of business. Moreover, analysts were derided when they asked questions about the earnings-report. These actions points that the corporate culture was of Enron was disruptive. This raises the questions on the role of boards of directors. It seems like the boards of directors of Enron had very little knowledge about the activities of Fastow and Lay.It’s interesting that the boards of directors had so little knowledge of thing happening in the company. The takeaway from this is that boards of directors should pay close attention to the management behavior and money generating strategies. The boards of directors need to take active participation in company not only when things are bad, but also when things are good. Another aspect was the business practices of the Arthur Andersen firm. It’s shocking to see one of the most prestige firms to engage in such a big fraud. The firm played a role of not only as an auditor, but also as a consultant for Enron.The conflict of interest was sure to take place. The firm saw the opportunity to make money by hiding Enron’s financial information. Basically, the firm helped Enron to cook books. I believe that some executives of Andersen firm were driven by greed and lack of ethical sense that made them act in a fraudulent activities. Moreover, it seems that Andersen had weak internal control in terms of auditing. The practices of this firm raised questions about the accounting and auditing system of the United States. The congress was quick to repond by adopting set of reforms.For example, the Sarbanes-Oxley bill was pa ssed to reform the accounting and auditing industries. The important part of the bill was the separation of roles: the separation of consulting and audit business. Yet, another aspect was the impact on the economy, particularly the energy industry. This was interesting because it shows how Enron impacted the economy and business environment. The financing for energy companies dried up because of Enron scandal. As a result of limited financing options, many companies went bankrupt. The confidence of investors was shaken. Many investors hesitated to invest in energy corporations.I believe that the Enron incident encouraged many analysts and investors to question the financial reporting and long term money making strategies of companies. Furthermore, the professional corruption also struck me. The management used financial cleverness as a financial strategy. The recording of assets and profits that were inflated or non-existent showed professional corruption. Additionally, the involvem ent in dishonest accounting practices was just too much. Moreover, the interviews for recruitment took place in strip clubs. The whole corporate culture was somewhat corrupted.The aspect that jumped out from the case was the relentless pursuit of profits. Yes, the main goal of any business is to make profit, but social values should be kept in mind. I believe that the compensation system at Enron was also to blame. People involved in the scandal were making huge sum of money. The intriguing aspect in this case was how Fastow was able to create special purpose entities (SPE). Fastow was creating these SPEs to segregate financial activities from Enron’s balance sheet. The SPEs provided Enron a way to move debt from the balance sheet so the credit rating could remain high.The commodities swapping mechanism required high credit rating. The SPEs allowed Enron to disguise debt and loss as revenue. Enron deceived investor and creditors. Furthermore, Enron invested in other companies . Once the investments began to show losses, they were transferred to SPEs. This method allowed the sale of investment to SPEs. Hence, the sale of investment was shown as gain to Enron. Another interesting fact was that analysts didn’t raise red any flags. I am sure that many analysts recommended the buying of Enron stocks. This scandal made investors and analysts more cautious.Analysts and investors began to ask questions: 1) how does company make money? 2) Can company sustain strategy over the long term? Basically, the laws got strict and analysts were more observant. These are some of the aspects that were intriguing to me or struck me. The case of Enron will continue to be a lesson in ethics and corporate responsibility. The government agencies should not relax and should make sure that industries are regulated when it comes to reporting financial information. The incident of Arthur Andersen serves as an example for other accounting firms.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Introduction to the microbial world history of microbiology Essay

Part A. This letter is in response to your story which was published in your website and broadcasted in your stations regarding Edward Jenner as the most prolific microbiologist that ever lived and have contributed much to the improvement of microbiology and public health. I would like to make a point that several other scientists have contributed much to that of the works of Jenner on eradicating small pox virus by vaccination. He may have started the use of vaccines which led to its eradication years later; however, it should not be mistaken to be the most significant microbiological contribution. Take an example the work of Joseph Lister on 1867 regarding antiseptics (Prescott et al., 2005). Like any other scientist during his time, works on antisepsis was not an overnight job; he worked carefully and tested his theories over and over again, until such time that he perfected it (Roediger, 1990). By thoughtfully thinking of what may cause pus formation in surgical wounds, he experimented with rags and phenol and used it as wound dressings. Sure enough, his patients did not develop gangrene after being dressed with carbolic acid or phenol treated rags. Later on, he improved on excluding bacteria from his operating suite by incorporation of clean environment as a prerequisite in aseptic surgery (Lister, 1909). See more: how to write an academic introduction In modern days, Lister’s work on antiseptic surgery had decreased much of the deaths caused by hospital-acquired infections brought about by practicing of good science (Pasteur and Lister, 1996). By applying his notion of the germ theory via his promotion of environmental cleanliness and sanitation, he inculcated the modern medical practitioners with standards of disease prevention that ultimately lead to reduction of major infections like tuberculosis (Osborn, 1986). Most notably, in his honor, Listerine ® was named after him. In recognition of his efforts, the British Medical Journal recently stated that â€Å"he saved more lives by the introduction of this system than all the wars of the 19th century together had sacrificed† (Nester et al., 2007). To conclude that Lister was more prolific than Jenner, the Jenner Institute of Preventive Medicine in Britain was changed to its current name, the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine (The Lister Institute). Another notable scientist is in the persona of Dr. John Snow. John Snow, in 1849 published his works entitled, â€Å"On the mode of communication of cholera.† In his research, Snow began to hypothesize that cholera was indeed transmitted by a common source, and sure enough he pin pointed it to a contaminated water pump in Broad Street (Thrusfield, 22007). Though highly criticized and much of his researches were dismissed, he never did falter in seeking out the truth. Despite of these obstacles, he never faltered to show the good qualities of an epidemiologist: good record keeper, determined, dedicated and highly skilled (Stanwell-Smith, 2002). A good record keeper, he was a very keen observer and he never did forgot to take into accounts this minute details that allowed him to solve the mystery of the cholera epidemic in London. Moreover, determined and dedicated to his work even though criticisms were all around him and yet a highly skilled scientist never did show attitudes that will hinder him from succeeding (Prescott et al., 2005). His works have led people to dub him as â€Å"the father of epidemiology.† Sure enough, epidemiology and public health cannot have gone a million step without the initiative of the medical doctor who was once criticized for hypothesizing something at that time which cannot be proven until later years where, the bacteria responsible for the disease was isolated. It may be another story of another scientist, but without Snow, nothing not even the prevention and determination of the occurrence of diseases can progress (Stanwell-Smith, 2002). Sure enough, Jenner may have helped in improving disease prevention by first creating the vaccine and subsequent studies leading to its development, it cannot be disclosed that Lister and Snow, did more achievements in the field of microbiology and public health per se. It may be fitting to say that Jenner may be a great microbiologist, it is only proper to also uphold and acknowledge other note taking efforts of these other microbiologists. Part B. In the summer of 1999, the first human case of West Nile Encephalitis in the western hemisphere was documented. By the end 0f 2002, the WNV epidemic have resulted to at least a total 4,156 human cases (with 2,943 meningoencephalitis case and 284 deaths), 16,741 dead birds, 6,604 infected mosquitoes and 14,571 equine cases. This epidemic was the largest recognized arboviral meningoencephalitis epidemic in the Western Hemisphere (CDC, 2003). The Virus Western equine encephalitis is a member of the Genus Flavivirus under the Family Flaviviridae (Tortora et al., 2007). The virions are spherical and around 50 nm in diameter. It is widely distributed throughout the Americas, especially after the onset of the epidemics in 2002. It is maintained in an endemic cycle involving domestic and passerine birds and Culex sp. serving as the vector host (Murphy et al., 1999 ).   WNV infection in humans produces either asymptomatic infection or mild febrile disease, sometimes accompanied by rash, which should be differentiated from dengue hemorrhagic fever. The human case-fatality rate in the U.S. has  been 7% overall with 10% of patients having neuroinvasive WNV disease (CDC, 2003). The Outbreak Although unknown how or when WNV was introduced into North America, international travel of infected people, importation of infected birds or mosquitoes or migration of infected birds are all possibilities and cannot be ruled out. Overwintering mosquitoes during the winter of 1999 to 2000 have been the mode wherein the virus has propagated throughout New York. It has then undergone several cycles of overwintering and by the end of 2002 has affected 44 states, including the District of Columbia. It has now been proven that the mosquito carry the virus and have traveled initially from New York to nearby states infecting other animals, most notably humans. (CDC, 2003). Control and Prevention Prevention and control of WNV encephalitis was accomplished effectively through a series of comprehensive efforts and programs including integrated pest management. It should be taken into consideration that the priority prevention for this type of disease is destruction of mosquito habitats which serve as the main vector. Likewise, sanitation and water management greatly reduced the total number of cases from that of 2002 to a tolerable one. (CDC, 2003)

Monday, July 29, 2019

Leaders in Innovation Assessment Essay

As stated in the assessment instructions, in the field of organizational leadership, many models are used as a means of examining what qualities and skills make an effective leader. Although there is a variety of models I have decided to analyze the behavioural and the transformational theory models. Reviewing the resources recommended for discovery and delivery skills, I learned how those skills have a direct impact on an effective leader’s performance in innovation organization. The discovery skills are based on associating, questioning, observing, experimenting, and networking they are also referred as the DNA of innovation. Delivery skills also play in the innovation process with their four key skills which are analyzing, planning, detail-oriented implementing, and self-disciplined executing. In the body of this paper I will unfold my research on those skills and identify its correlation with innovation. I will also be assessing the strengths and weaknesses on my ability t o support innovation in an organization. Leadership Models Supporting Innovation Over the years, a number of leadership theories have been established including: trait, behavioural, contingency, and transformational theory. My analysis will be on behavioral and transformational. Behavioral Theories As described in Doyle and Smith (2001) early researchers ran out of steam in their search for traits, they turned to what leaders did and how they behaved, specially towards followers. They moved from leaders to leadership and this became the dominant way of approaching leadership within the organizations in the 1950s and early 1960s. Different patterns of behaviour  were grouped together and labeled as styles. This became a very popular activity within management training perhaps the best known being Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid (1964; 1978). Various schemes appeared, designed to diagnose and develop people’s style of working. Despite different names, the basic ideas were very similar. The four main styles that appear are: Concern for task. Here leaders emphasize the achievement of concrete objectives. Concern for people. In this style, leaders look upon their followers as people their needs, interests, problems, and development. Directive leadership. This styl e is characterized by leaders taking decisions for others and expecting followers or subordinates to follow instructions. Participative leadership. Here leaders try to share decision-making with others. The behavioral theory has many assumptions which conclude that leaders can be made rather than born. This theory has a direct approach with innovation in the organization. With the managements concern for their employees it gives everyone in the organization the motivation to innovate. Innovation is all about adaptability and with the behavioral theory leaders are made, which means that they can adapt to any situation that they are confronted with. The following grid model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in the early 1960s The grid clarifies the magnitude in which a leader focuses on these dimensions determining the leadership style that they relate to. Some leaders are more concerned with getting the tasks at hand completed successfully in a timely manner. Other leaders prefer creating solid interpersonal relationships with their employees, because by being an oriented leader the employee’s performance will be higher. For example, if you have a high concern for completing a task and achieving results with little concern for having a relationship with people, you would be an authority-obedience manager. Another example: if you have little concern to complete a task or interact with people, you would be an impoverished manager. Transformational Theory Transformational leaders are those leaders who transform followers personal  values and self-concepts, move them to higher levels of needs and aspirations (Jung, 2001), and raise the performance expectations of their followers (Bass, 1995). This leadership has four components; charismatic role modeling, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation. Using charisma, the leader instills admiration, respect, and loyalty, and emphasizes the importance of having a collective sense of mission. By individualized consideration, the leader builds a one-to-one relationship with his or her followers, and understands and considers their differing needs, skills, and aspirations. Thus, transformational leaders articulates an exciting vision of the future, shows the followers the ways to achieve the goals, and expresses his or her belief that they can do. (Bass, 1990) Incorporated by (Cohen and Levinthal, 1990; Damanpour, 1991) has been suggested that transformational leadership is an important source of organizational innovation, empirical studies have not examined the moderating role of this contextual factor while investigating the relationship between transformational leadership and innovation. In addition to external support for innovation, support within the organization, in terms of an innovation supporting climate and adequate resources allocated to innovation might also be an important contextual factor that plays a role in this relationship. Transformational leaders have been suggested to have an impact on innovation. Transformational leaders enhance innovation within the organizational context; in other words the tendency of organizations to innovate. According to (Elkins and Keller, 2003) transformational leaders use inspirational motivation and intellectual stimulation which are critical for organizational innovation. They also promote creative ideas within their organizations and their behaviors. Blake , and Jane (n.d.). Discovery and Delivery Skills In recent studies it has been identified that the ability of a person’s creative thinking comes one-third from their genetics; and the other two-thirds of innovation skill set comes through learning (Dyer, Gregersen,  & Christensen, 2009, p. 63). To begin with, a person is given a skill set that they will analyze till understand, then practicing, experimenting, and lastly gaining confidence in one’s capacity to create. The following details will demonstrate by skills how innovative entrepreneurs acquire their innovation skills. The following five skills set that constitute the â€Å"innovators DNA†: associating, questioning, observing, networking, and experimenting. Discovery skill 1: Associating is the ability to successfully connect seemingly unrelated questions, problems, or ideas from different fields, is central to the innovator’s DNA. Discovery skill 2: Questioning the power of provocative questions. To question effectively, innovative entrepreneurs do the following: ask â€Å"why?† and â€Å"why not?† and â€Å"what if?† Discovery skill 3: Observing the behavior of potential customers. In observing others, they act like anthropologists and social scientists. Discovery skill 4: Experimenting, innovative entrepreneurs actively try out new ideas by creating prototypes and launching pilots. Discovery skill 5: Networking is devoting time and energy to finding and testing ideas through a network of diverse individuals gives innovators a radically different perspective. Delivery skills play in the innovation process, improving their discovery, and encouraging themselves and their organizations to take a long-term view. The delivery skills consist of four keys terms: analyzing, planning, detailed-oriented implementing, and self-disciplined executing. At times delivery skills are relatively more important during the maturity growth of a business. Analyzing: examine methodically and in detail the constitution or structure of something or information. Planning: the process of making plans for something. Detail-oriented implementing: capable of carrying out a given task with all details necessary to get the task well done and executed. Disciplined-executing: acting in accordance, and performing an act successfully. The synthesis of, discovery and delivery skills are critical for delivering results and translating an innovative idea into reality for organizations. According to Dyer, Gregersen, and Christensen, (2011) it is vital to understand that the skills critical to an organization’s success  vary systematically throughout the business life cycle. For example, in the start-up phase of an innovative venture, the founders are obviously more discovery-driven and entrepreneurial. Discovery skills are crucial early in the business life cycle because the company’s key task is to generate new ideas worth pursuing. Thus, discovery skills are highly valued at this stage and delivery skills are secondary. However, once innovative entrepreneurs come up with a promising new business idea and then shape that idea into a bona fide business opportunity, the company begins to grow and then must pay attention to building the processes necessary to scale the idea. Strengths and Weaknesses in Discovery & Delivery Skills Strengths Discovery Skills Weaknesses Associating: I’m always coming up with new ideas to improve things. Experimenting: Like with observing I also like to experiment, but I quickly become frustrated after getting something wrong after a couple of tries. I would like to give myself the ability to keep trying with a positive mind that I will get to the right solution. Questioning: When it comes to questioning I don’t have a mute button. I like to ask enough questions because it helps me come up with the best solution. Networking: I have no networking skills. I’ve had the opportunity to do this in my place of work, but I never take the time to do it. Observing: This skill is definitely one of my strongest. I observe everything that goes around me always finding a better way to solve an issue. StrengthsDelivery SkillsWeaknesses Planning: I enjoy planning, especially when the plan in process will be a success to an issue. Analyzing: I lose interest very easily when I have to sit down for a long period of time to analyze something. Detail-Oriented: When I’m given and assignment I make sure I executed just as it was asked. Discipline-executing: I always make sure I perform to the best of my ability as asked of me following all regulations and procedures to be successful. Having good associating, questioning, observing, planning, detail-oriented, and discipline-executing skills will not only be beneficial for me, but also  for the organization that I work for. Due to the fact that innovation is a critical aspect for organizations, senior executives are always seeking for candidates with these types of skills because it will contribute to their ability to innovate and be successful in the business with strategically ideas since executives don’t feel responsible for innovating. Unfortunately due to that fact; that my weaknesses with experimenting, networking, and analyzing will hinder my ability to support innovation in an organization at 100%. Although I’m not as concerned even though my weaknesses will delay any project I might be working on, but with trial in error I can convert those weaknesses into strengths. As stated in the innovators DNA, practice, practice, practice. Though innovative thinking may be innate to some, it can also be developed and strengthened through practice. Conclusion Through the models and detailed explanations we have learned how the behavioral and transformational theories are a big part of innovation and organizations. The roles of discovery and delivery skills are crucial in an organization to innovate with ideas, research, and these skills are a company’s success to innovate and succeed. I feel comfortable with my discovery and delivery skills, my role now are to practice and work on my weaknesses. A candidate with all the skills in place; is better than one with just a few. References Barnard, C. (1938), new definition of leadership. Retrieved from Bass, B. M. (1990). From Transactional to Transformational Leadership: Learning to Share the Vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18(3): 19-32. Bass, B. M. (1995). Transformational Leadership. Journal of Management Inquiry, 4(3): 293 298. Behavioral Grid Retrieved from Cohen, W. M. and Levinthal, D. A. (1990).Absorptive Capacity: A New Perspective on Learning and Innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35: 128-152. Damanpour, F. (1991). Organizational Innovation: A Meta-analysis of Effects of Determinants and Moderators. Academy of Management Journal, 34: 555-590. Doyle, M. E., & Smith, M. K. (2001). Classical models of managerial leadership: Trait, behavioral, contingency and transformational theory. Retrieved from Infed Web site: Dyer, J. H., Gregersen, H. B., & Christensen, C. M. (2009, December). The innovator’s DNA. Harvard Business Review, 87(12), 60–67. Dyer, J. H., Gregersen, H. B., & Christensen, C. M. (2011). The innovator’s DNA: Mastering the five skills of disruptive innovators. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Review Press. Elkins, T. and Keller, R. T. (2003). Leadership in Research and Development Organizations: A Literature Review and Conceptual Framework. Leadership Quarterly, 14: 587-606. Jung, D. I. (2001). Transformational and Transactional Leadership and Their Effects on Creativity in Groups. Creativity Research Journal, 13 (2): 185-195 Transformational model Retrieved from

Homework Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 9

Homework - Essay Example The western wing on the other hand contains the stairwell and smoke tower. The base of the building has intertwined truss system that helps in enhancing the stability of the entire structure in case of any earthquake. The building also has an X-bracing on the top, which assists in resisting torsion movement about the vertical axis of the building (Irvine). The construction process of the Transamerica Pyramid involved the use of various materials deemed as of great quality. Before lying of the first material, the point where the building stands was excavated to a depth of 52 feet. The bottom of the building has complicated system of steel rod reinforcements exceeding 300 miles thickness. About 16000 cubic yards of solid concrete covers the system of the reinforced steel rods. The entire base concrete of the Transamerica Pyramid is in such a way that the entire building moves in case of earthquake. The movement helps in distributing the shockwaves thus reducing damages (EMPROIS). The external parts of the Transamerica Pyramid are fixed with aggregates of quartz that form panels. There are also some rods designed to reinforce the panels at four points on every floor. There is also systematic spacing of the panels that helps in ensuring lateral movement of the building in case of earthquake or tremor. The panels comprises of aluminum louvered structures. The louvered aluminum panels projects to the top to form a 64 meters high spire (EMPROIS). The 48th floor of the building has conference room that provides 360-degree aerial view of the city. The entire external part of the building is white in color. I am always attracted to Transamerica Pyramid because of numerous features the building exhibits. First, I have found it fantastic to explore how the fifth floor of the building happen to be the largest floor and not the first or the second. Logically thinking and considering the shape of the building, the largest floor ought to

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Organizational Behavior Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words - 5

Organizational Behavior - Essay Example In order to answer the objectives previously mentioned, the study reviewed job satisfaction-related literature in defining what job satisfaction is, its intrinsic and extrinsic factors, and other elements that can either increase or decrease it. The study used published peer-reviewed articles in scholarly journals from year 2000 and onwards. All articles included in the study are empirical and have used questionnaires as methodological approach. Job satisfaction has been the topic of various researches for the past few decades, focusing on the factors that affect job satisfaction, how it can be achieved, and how it can be enhanced (Hoppock, 1935). It has also been said that job satisfaction can determine the quality of performance and productivity of an individual (Patterson, et al 2004). By definition, job satisfaction can be feelings, attitudes and emotions that employees feel towards work-related aspects (Lock, 1976). These can be their relationships with their co-workers, wages, workload, and working environment (Jackson and Corr, 2002). This implies that if an individual employee is satisfied with his/her working environment of the amount of salary and compensation that he/she receives, his level of job satisfaction will correspondingly increase. However, if an individual suffers from over workload or stressful environment, it can contribute to his/her dissatisfaction. It also implies that job dissatisfaction can lead to poor level of performance and absenteeism of an employee. Job satisfaction also consists of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Intrinsic factors are an individual evaluation of the quality of work performed; how the work was handled professionally; individual development of skills and expansion of horizon; and intellectual growth and maturity. Extrinsic factors, on the other hand, include the kind of work environment; salary provided and bonuses; rewards and promotions in return for excellent performance;

Saturday, July 27, 2019

Competitive Advantage of Sales Case Study

Competitive Advantage of Sales - Case Study Example Finally, the paper will outline the action plan about how to implement the suggested recommendations. Basically, SWOT refers to strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats and this is a widely used technique by managers to determine the strategies that can be implemented by the firm in its operations (Strydom, 2004). As noted, specialises in providing the CRM services and the section below outlines its SWOT analysis. The company is facing problems related to competition and its inability to realise profits from its operations. Essentially, businesses are primarily concerned with generating profits in their operations as their main goal. However, in this particular case, the main problem is related to intense competition facing the company in its operations. Indeed, competition is inevitable as a result of the fact that there are also other players in the environment in which organizations operate. Porter (1985) has suggested that there are companies with viable strategies that can hardly matched by their competitors and this gives them competitive advantage. Thus according to this concept, strategies such as differentiation, diversification low cost leader as well as focus can give the firm competitive advantage depending on how they are implemented. In the case of, differentiation and low cost leader are viable alternatives that can be implemented. Differentiation entails that the company ought to design its products and services in a unique way in order to gain customer superior value. This will help the company to gain more revenue by virtue of charging high prices for quality products offered.

Friday, July 26, 2019

Plagarism Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Plagarism - Essay Example But shortcuts will never help a student in learning a topic well. Even if a student was able to get better grades using means like plagiarism, in his future personal and professional lives, he will face stiff challenges when facing real problems. The standards of the education will be decreased if the students engage in plagiarism like activities. Academic assignments are aimed at developing critical thinking among the students. If the students follow shortcuts, such objectives of the education will never meet and the standards of the education could be seriously affected. Education is aimed at developing high level of ethics and integrity in personal life. In fact in order to claim credibility for the qualifications achieved by a student, he should make sure that all the grades he achieved should be based on his hard work alone. Plagiarism prevents a student from achieving a degree using fair means. The values and norms set during the studies may affect the future course of life and hence plagiarism will definitely affect a student’s future life

Thursday, July 25, 2019

Cloud Computing Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words - 2

Cloud Computing - Research Paper Example For instance, information of an organization needs to be protected and is the ultimate responsibility of the board of director for which they are also liable. We have selected a small medium enterprise called as ‘Wizni Incorporated’ this is transformed from a traditional IT service to a cloud service provider. The Information technology architecture of the company incorporates three components i.e. business analytics expertise, along with the provision of a quality cloud hosting provider. Likewise, the core competency of Wizni Inc. is business analytics. Moreover, the company is delivering business analytics bundled with powerful systems enabling their clients to make efficient decision making. Wizni Incorporated provides state of the art analytics solutions for empowering organizations to utilize business intelligence required for making efficient decision making. The company provides Business intelligence deployments that facilitate ease of discovery, patterns hidden i n IT systems, applications and unstructured data. The business analytics products are DIFEEâ„ ¢ (data-inference and federation engine) and Score IT. DIFEE is used for virtualization and Score IT is used for data mining, model scoring and life cycle management. Furthermore, IBM Cognos Express is also a first integrated business intelligence tool that is precisely developed and acquired by the company to meet customer requirements. The tool is bundled with critical reporting, scorecard, analysis, budgeting, forecasting dashboard and customization features and capabilities for the small medium enterprises at an affordable cost without large associated investments. Moreover, the tool incorporates a pre-configured solution that is very easy for installation and use for the end users. The transition of this new powerful cloud solution is approved by the board on the basis of gaining competitive edge among small medium enterprises within the region. Previously, there was no growth in cl ientele and after implementing the cloud based solution, clientele sky rocketed and stakeholders were satisfied at the same time ready to invest in the technological solution. On the other hand, cloud computing also reflects significant risks, principal risks of cloud computing is associated with federal agencies and regulations. Any vulnerability found in the software, platform or infrastructure of the vendors will expose serious exposures, as information may be related to more than one organization. Moreover, employees working internally on the cloud computing premises of ‘Business Cloud’ may also expose a serious threat if no proper background employee checks were performed during recruitment procedures. Furthermore, if any governmental agencies for instance, military or other sensitive body is also using the same cloud from the same vendor is also most likely to be compromised, if any breach of any one of these fundamental concepts Confidentiality, Integrity and Ava ilability is successful. In addition, the incident response function may not be efficient and effective if any incident occurs and affect the customer or employee. For instance, if a security incident affects the customer, the incident response function of the organization will trigger in a timely manner to isolate and investigate the root cause via root cause analysis. In a cloud computing scenario, it may be a different case and result

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

The Miracle of Life Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Miracle of Life - Essay Example Life's Greatest Miracle takes the mystery out of reproduction, but leaves plenty of awe in its place. This film is an appropriate scientific adjunct for birds-and-bees discussions with children and teenagers. However, parents may want to preview the birth scene which, although sensitively filmed, may be too intense for younger viewers. The Miracle of Life records human conception for the first time on film, and much more. Living, functioning reproductive systems are laid bare to the camera, and there is so much to explore and absorb that Nova's expert guidance is much needed and appreciated. The viewer is also able to follow an egg from its follicular development in an ovary, through the delicate, flowery fallopian tube for fertilization, and on to the uterus for development and eventual birth. Likewise, the audience follows the shorter journey of millions of sperm as they develop and strive mightily to reach the egg. Among the stunning sequences shot by the photographer is the incredible voyage of the sperm toward the egg.

Cartoons and its Effect on Children Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Cartoons and its Effect on Children - Essay Example Since the seventies, there had been numerous studies to determine the effect of television on children. This brief essay discusses the effects of cartoons on children since the 1990s. Essentially, the cartoons that gained popularity in the 1990s deviated from the traditional. Together with the conventional kids’ cartoons such as Tiny Toons, Animaniacs, and the still popular Spongebob Squarepants, the nineties ushered such satirical animated programmes as the Simpsons, King of the Hill, Space Ghost Coast-to-Coast, and the highly irreverend Beavis and Butt-head and South Park. Clearly, the latter group contained more of adult content and are not meant for children, but lack of parental vigilance (and the misleading format of the shows) has enabled many children to watch them with regularity. More recently, the cartoons that had become popular were those that departed from humor. The term â€Å"cartoons† traditionally implies comedy and humor; however, cartoons portray vio lence in a comedic context, such as those elements in Samurai Jack, X-Men Evolution, and Batman: The Animated Series, which portray â€Å"dark† situations. At times, violence is portrayed without the comedy and make use of characters who look realistic (as against the fantastic), a form of cartoons R.B. Haynes (1978) calls â€Å"authentic† because of its closeness to reality. Effects of cartoons on children Because of its implications on children’s future behaviour, violence became a major interest in the study of the effects animated programs. In the 1990s, cartoons portrayed violence in the form of minor acts; for instance, rarely is death depicted, and never is rape portrayed. Cartoons also â€Å"sanitized† the outcomes of violence, by symbolically depicting or merely implying pain or suffering without tangibly showing it. (Potter & Warren, 1998 in Kirsh, 2006, p. 161). The principal concern of researchers is that comedy in cartoons may potentially tri vialize or camouflage the underlying violence in cartoons (Kirsh, 2006). However, it is possible for children’s reactions to the same cartoons, or any stimuli for that matter, to be different, depending upon their interests and personality (Smith, Cowie & Blades, 2003). It was suggested that cartoons may be harmful particularly for little children, because the have difficulty distinguishing reality from fantasy (Peters & Blumberg, 2002). The present computer generated, 3D animated shows are particularly convincing because, where the character design significantly departs from the fantastic and imitates reality, the audience (particularly very young children) are drawn to the center of the story, and for the duration of the presentation there is a suspension of disbelief. As mentioned, cartoon violence has been the topic of much research, with the notion that children tend to imitate the violence they witness in cartoons. Some investigations, however, tended to suggest that in the case of preschoolers, the effects are not as severe as had been speculated. Very young children have very limited comprehension of the content of television programs, but their moral reasoning is at a rather developed stage – described as â€Å"sophisticated† (Peters & Blumberg, 2002:143). Another adverse effect of animation is the extraordinarily close affinity of children with certain psychiatric disorders to televised cartoon shows. Particularly significant is the effect of animation on children clinically diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In a study of 24 boys eight-to-twelve years of age, it was determined that 59 percent of the group preferred cartoons, significantly one-third more than the

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Criminal Law & Immigration Law, Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Criminal Law & Immigration Law, - Research Paper Example In addition, whereas criminal law is under the powers of the states, immigration law is normally under the powers of the federal administration. With considerable and constant interactions, hard questions arises, such as, what degree does criminal law impact immigration law? Do their functions in influencing immigration continue to overlap? This paper will critically examine the interaction of criminal law and immigration law. In most cases, the most crucial issue that face noncitizen (undocumented immigrants) defendants charged with committing a crime is whether when convicted and sentenced for the crime, will result in some certain provisions contained in the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA), that will lead in his deportation from the US. Usually noncitizen defendants do not understand how critical this matter is until it turns out to be too late. The present provisions of immigration law make the consequences for committing a crime to be very severe. Noncitizens, who are convicted of seemingly minor offences such as theft, can face devastating consequences. The moment they are convicted and sentenced, noncitizens could face such severe consequences such as direct deportation, being permanently barred from returning to the US and a likely indefinite detention by the Immigration and Customs Enforcement authorities, regardless of the duration he has lived in the US, the family ties he has, or if he is legally in the US. In addition, the most of the noncitizen offenders are not represent during their immigration proceedings. As pointed out by Guild and Minderhoud (2006) many of them are kept in Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities in the course of their proceedings. When noncitizen commits crime, an aggravated crime he may be deported. As explained by Guild and Minderhoud (2006) the effect of an aggravated crime

Monday, July 22, 2019

Tom Clancy Essay Example for Free

Tom Clancy Essay Last month as I was browsing through a used bookstore, I came across a dog-eared copy of Red Storm Rising. Tom Clancy, being one of my favorite writers, I decided to pick it up and read through the book. What surprised me was not the author’s attention to detail which he is known for, but the depth of the scenarios which take place on the global landscape and development of each scenario on the overall picture. One of the facets of the novel is the journey made by a USAF meteorological officer stationed in Iceland when the Soviets decided to invade. Lt. Mike Edwards as described in the book is a scholarly looking weatherman for the base he works at. Although nerdy looking, he was a quickly liked by his comrades for his humorous outlook and no-nonsense approach to life. When the Russians attacked he and three other marines were forced to retreat and execute partisan activities against the invading force. Armed with light weapons and a satellite radio, they began their trek from Keflavik airbase pondering on how best to hamper their enemies with what little they had. The invaders already quelled most of the armed resistance in the country and had the edge in numbers and equipment. Their best contribution would be in the form of real time intelligence to their allies. Their first goal was to reach a hill a couple of kilometers from the fallen base where they could establish communications and find out what was going on. The marines Edwards was teamed up with did not know him very well since they were from different services but they passed judgment on him based on his bookish features. Priding themselves with their physical prowess (the USMC has one of the toughest training programs) they strove to exhaust their â€Å"pencil pushing† officer into the ground. Mike matched them stride for stride much to the surprise of the hardened soldiers. Through flat terrain and mountainous crags, he kept up with their pace, never slacking, never complaining. In one of their layovers, the sergeant he was with asked him how he could keep up. Mike simply answered that he used to run the marathon foe the Air Force Academy in Colorado. After that the marines treated him with a newfound respect stemming from embarrassment at having misjudged their leader. Another important event in their journey was meeting Vigdis Augustdottir, a local who lived in an isolated farm with her parents. The group came across her in their trek when a squad of garrison soldiers decided to cure their boredom by raping and pillaging the farm she lived in. This was another surprise for the marines when they immediately found out what was going on. Edwards usually an easygoing guy who avoided confrontation with the enemy immediately gave orders to fan out and engage with minimal casualties. The encounter was short and ugly. All of the Soviets had to be eliminated to prevent them from reporting back and both of Vigdis’ parents were killed by the Russians. They had no choice but to take the girl with them as survivors would most likely be questioned and dumped the dead soldiers to make it look like an accident. Vigdis provided them with comfort though not at first. As an attempted rape victim, the Americans tried their best to keep her mind away from what had happened by keeping the strenuous pace previous to the meeting. Ever mindful of their fragile companion, they each took turns looking out for her and responded to her little cries for help. On and on they trekked without a goal. They just did what they were told by the person on the other end of the radio. Go to this hill and report on the number and type of Soviet aircraft taking off and landing. Get to coordinated positions to verify destruction of target by bombers. Keep out of sight and reestablish contact at prescribed time. These were just some of the things they were ordered to do while walking between 15-20 kilometers a day and kept in the dark on their ultimate goal. The physical journey of this small group might have seemed insignificant but hiking almost 200 miles through enemy territory while surviving off the land is no small feat. Given a less significant task, some people might have folded and gone their own way to await the outcome without doing their share. The information this group provided paved the way for the retaking of Iceland which is a critical point of the G-I-UK line. It is s an array of sonar sensors which allows tracking and early warning of submarines trying to enter the Atlantic and hamper the shipping lanes into Europe. Without this supplies and arms could not be ferried into mainland Europe where the center of the conflict was being waged. The symbolism of a hard journey in order to attain one’s goals although not yet clear was beautifully captured. It also provided a personal and lighter perspective on the war which was being waged. The beautiful and accurate descriptions of the Icelandic landscape and relationships of the group gave meaning to what they were fighting for in the book. Like a corner jigsaw piece, the role of Mike Edwards and his group was essential in painting the big picture. Through their trials and travels, they added another piece to the whole by sending data to allied command which could be utilized in driving the Russians back.

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Assessing financial management within Tesco plc

Assessing financial management within Tesco plc 1.1 Determine how to obtain financial data and assess it validity Tesco is Britains leading retailer. We are one of the top three retailers in the world, operating over 2,711 stores globally and employing 366,000 people. Tesco operates in 11 countries outside the UK Republic of Ireland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Turkey and Poland in Europe; China, Japan, Malaysia, South Korea and Thailand in Asia. Everyday life keeps changing and the Tesco team excels at responding to those changes. Tesco has grown from a market stall, set up by Jack Cohen in1919. The name Tesco first appeared above a shop in Edgware in 1929 and since then the company has grown and developed, responding to new opportunities and pioneering many innovations. By the early 1990s we faced strong competitors and needed a new strategy. We were good at buying and selling goods but had begun to forget the customers. Sir Terry Leahy, who became Chief Executive in 1997, asked customers the simple question what are we doing wrong? . We then invested in the things that matter to customers. For example, we launched our loyalty scheme Club card and, our internet home shopping service. Going the extra mile for customers has been key to our growth. We want to make customers lives easier and better in any way we can. Most plcs have their Annual reports available from their own web sites .. look for Investor Pages or Corporate News etc. Others can be downloaded as PDFs from sites like FTSE, Yahoo Finance etc. It is well known that high employee satisfaction contributes significantly to high customer satisfaction, which drives intent to return, and therefore, financial results. High employee satisfaction expresses itself as enthusiasm in ones work, which directly impacts the experience of the customer. Likewise, high customer satisfaction expresses itself as enthusiasm toward a particular organization, its products or services, which directly impacts the intent to return rate. It is a short leap, then, to understand how a high intent to return rate among customers impacts financial results. But with so many variables affecting employee and customer satisfaction, how does one determine those of greatest importance, so that interventions aimed at increasing satisfaction are of maximum effectiveness? The answer is in the root cause analysis derived from employee and customer survey data, (West, S.J.DR, 2009). 1.2 Apply different types of analytical tools and techniques to a range of financial documents and formulate conclusions about performance levels and needs of stakeholders When implementing human performance improvement, most organizations hope and expect that it will have an effect on the bottom line that there will be a financial benefit that justifies the improvement effort. But human performance is a complex entity, and translating changes in performance into quantitative and financial results is often a daunting task. In the ideal, it is desirable to generate a causal chain of evidence from the intervention to the final financial impact. For instance, consider a simple performance improvement intervention such as a training program. In order for the program to affect the financial bottom line of the organization, we must first assure that the training is in an area that is relevant to the bottom line. It is, after all, possible to do training on topics that are irrelevant to financial performance. Assuming that the training is relevant, we might expect that it first needs to affect the knowledge and skills of the learners. Even if it does, it will not be translated into human performance unless the learner is motivated to use the knowledge. Even if the learner wants to use the new knowledge, there are any number of factors that can prevent them from doing so, or cause them to try under less than optimal conditions. Even if the learner performs perfectly, this performance may not affect the overall performance of the business (e.g., how efficiently departments process products). And, even if there is an effect on busi ness performance, there may not be a corresponding financial impact (depending on how relevant the business performance is to financial results). We see that in most performance improvement contexts, the causal chain from the program to final result is often a long and difficult one. The method described in this paper falls into the class of statistical estimation approaches to financial returns. It has several key advantages over other methods of estimating financial returns: It requires only a small investment of client participant time typically less than one hour to determine reasonable estimates of project-level financial benefits. It calculates boundaries on financial return estimates (i.e., lower and upper limits), rather than just a single value. It integrates financial return estimation with human performance measurement at all levels. In this approach, project costs are estimated using traditional accounting procedures. Project-level financial benefits are estimated by a client participant group using an iterative Delphi methodology. These cost and benefit estimates are proportionally distributed across performance goals and objectives and weighted by observed performance. The performance-weighted financial returns (i.e., Benefit/cost ratio and ROI) can then be presented for each performance objective, performance goal, or the whole project. There are several key assumptions in this approach: Because all financial estimation methods are fallible, it makes more sense to estimate a range of financial return values within which the true value is likely to fall. In statistical terminology, rather than doing a point estimate, it is desirable to do an interval estimate. Following common statistical practice, for each financial return estimate, the 95% confidence interval will be calculated. With this interval, the odds are 95 out of 100 that the true estimate falls within the range. All financial estimates are calculated for a fixed period of time. Typically, returns are estimated on an annual basis. However, for many performance interventions, it is reasonable to expect that the major effects will accrue over time periods longer than one year. If this is the case, it will usually be desirable to estimate the returns for multiple years. Since the costs of interventions are not likely to be distributed evenly over time, it is also necessary to estimate costs for the same time pe riods. Depending on the situation, it may be reasonable to amortize some of the first year costs over a several year period. It is actually quite simple to implement in practice, assuming you have taken the time to develop a performance hierarchy. Once a hierarchy exists, all thats needed is an estimate of total costs and benefits for the project. Total costs should be relatively easy to obtain. Before implementation, one could use the budgeted amount for the program as an estimate. After the program is implemented, one simply uses the accounted costs for the project. To estimate benefits requires the Delphi procedure described earlier. This is a relatively simple process that should be easy to accomplish in less than an hour of participant time. The bottom line here is that a good performance measurement system will enable relatively easy estimation of financial results there is little additional marginal cost to estimating financial outcomes, assuming you have a well-constructed measurement system. The Concept System approach is designed so that the performance hierarchy is correctly constructed. Adding in the estimation of financial returns is then a relatively simple and inexpensive addition that yields critical information about the financial impacts of the performance improvement project, (Trochim .M.K.W, 2009). 1.3 Conduct comparative analysis of financial data Financial analysis refers to an assessment of the viability, stability and profitability of a business, sub-business or project. It is performed by professionals who prepare reports using ratios that make use of information taken from financial statements and other reports. These reports are usually presented to top management as one of their bases in making business decisions. Based on these reports, management may: Continue or discontinue its main operation or part of its business Make or purchase certain materials in the manufacture of its product; Acquire or rent/lease certain machineries and equipment in the production of its goods; Issue stocks or negotiate for a bank loan to increase its working capital; Make decisions regarding investing or lending capital; Other decisions that allow management to make an informed selection on various alternatives in the conduct of its business. Financial analysts often assess the firms: 1. Profitability its ability to earn income and sustain growth in both short-term and long-term. A companys degree of profitability is usually based on the income statement, which reports on the companys results of operations; 2. Solvency its ability to pay its obligation to creditors and other third parties in the long-term; 3. Liquidity its ability to maintain positive cash flow, while satisfying immediate obligations; Both 2 and 3 are based on the companys balance sheet, which indicates the financial condition of a business as of a given point in time. 4. Stability- the firms ability to remain in business in the long run, without having to sustain significant losses in the conduct of its business. Assessing a companys stability requires the use of both the income statement and the balance sheet, as well as other financial and non-financial indicators. Financial analysts often compare financial ratios (of solvency, profitability, growth, etc.): Past Performance Across historical time periods for the same firm (the last 5 years for example), Future Performance Using historical figures and certain mathematical and statistical techniques, including present and future values, This extrapolation method is the main source of errors in financial analysis as past statistics can be poor predictors of future prospects. Comparative Performance Comparison between similar firms. These ratios are calculated by dividing a (group of) account balance(s), taken from the balance sheet and / or the income statement, by another, for example  : n / equity = return on equity Net income / total assets = return on assets Stock price / earnings per share = P/E-ratio Comparing financial ratios are merely one way of conducting financial analysis. Financial ratios face several theoretical challenges: They say little about the firms prospects in an absolute sense. Their insights about relative performance require a reference point from other time periods or similar firms. One ratio holds little meaning. As indicators, ratios can be logically interpreted in at least two ways. One can partially overcome this problem by combining several related ratios to paint a more comprehensive picture of the firms performance. Seasonal factors may prevent year-end values from being representative. A ratios values may be distorted as account balances change from the beginning to the end of an accounting period. Use average values for such accounts whenever possible. Financial ratios are no more objective than the accounting methods employed. Changes in accounting policies or choices can yield drastically different ratio values,( Web 1, 2009). 1.4 Review and question financial data In November 2007 the Panel identified the areas in the economy considered to be under most strain as the banking, retail, travel, commercial property and house-building industries. The Panels selection of accounts for review in 2008/09 has been biased towards these sectors as annual financial statements and half-yearly accounts have become available. These reviews are continuing and the Panel is in correspondence with a number of companies. The Financial Reporting Council (FRC) has also taken a closer look at impairment and liquidity two aspects of reporting that are of increased significance given the pressure from the restricted availability of credit and reduced expectations for growth in the economy. The FRC is reviewing the goodwill and related impairment disclosures of 30 listed companies with significant goodwill balances at 31 December 2007 and the liquidity disclosures of 30 listed companies that have announced profit warnings or rescue fund raisings in the first half of 2008. The FRC will publish brief reports on its findings later in October. In 2007/08, the Panel reviewed 300 sets of accounts (2006/07: 311) and wrote letters to 138 companies (2006/07: 135) asking for further information about areas of possible non-compliance with the accounting requirements of the Companies Act 1985 (the Act) or the Financial Services Authoritys (FSAs) Listing Rules. At the time of writing this report, all but 17 cases are concluded. On the basis of accounts reviewed to March 2008, the Panel has concluded that the current standard of corporate reporting in the UK is good. The areas of reporting that prompted most questions were those dealing with more complex accounting issues or where the exercise of judgement b y management is most critical. The Panel did not identify any systemic issues requiring immediate remedial action. The Panel does not ask questions about reports and accounts in order to test its judgement against that of management. Directors, with the assistance of their professional advisers, are best placed to apply corporate reporting requirements to the particular circumstances of their companies. The Panel asks directors for additional information or explanations when it needs to clarify the facts and circumstances attaching to specific events, transactions or conditions reflected in reports and accounts. Once these are available the Panel is better placed to consider the thought processes applied to the reporting requirements, particularly the extent to which management has relied on working assumptions that are supported by a realistic appraisal of past performance and experience and future expectations, taking account of risks and uncertainties. It is the Panels experience that reports which clearly set out the companys business model are those which are easiest to understand. The Panel continues to be pleased by the way in which directors co-operate openly and constructively with the Panel and by their willingness to volunteer undertakings to improve the quality of their future annual and halfyearly reports. Company responses to the Panels letters of enquiry continued to be well considered. Directors who answered the questions they were asked, who presented well analysed and comprehensive replies, and who involved audit committees and external auditors in the process will usually have found that the Panel was able to conclude its enquiries after minimal exchanges of correspondence. The Panel published two press notices in the year in respect of companies that had failed to comply with the requirements of the Act. These companies restated comparative amounts in their next set of annual and half-yearly financial statements. UK companies with securities traded on a regulated market have been required since 2005 to prepare their consolidated financial statements in accordance with IFRS. From January 2007, AIM quoted companies have also prepared their accounts in accordance with IFRS as required by the Stock Exchange. The Panels experience is that there has been good progress and that the overall quality of financial statements has improved since 2005. The areas referred to below represent those where there is room for further advances in quality, particularly in the context of the difficult current conditions in the financial markets. Disclosure points that were frequently raised with companies during the period under review are noted at the end of the section. During the year to March 2008, the Panel reviewed the accounts of 10 retail and investment banks reporting under IFRS. The Panel considered compliance with all applicable reporting standards. The Panel identified banks as a priority sector in its accounts selection for 2008/09. Reviews conducted in the current year have concentrated on disclosures of financial risks as required by IFRS 7, the results of which will be reflected in the 2009 Panel Report. Issues raised varied between banks and there was no evidence of systemic reporting weaknesses. Most of the points raised indicated a need for refinement of certain disclosures rather than significant changes in recognition or measurement policies. The Panels remit was extended during the year to cover directors reports, including the business review, for periods commencing on or after 1 April 2006; effectively 31 March 2007 year ends. The following summarised findings therefore relate only to a minority of accounts reviewed in the period to March 2008. Comments on business reviews now feature regularly in the Panels correspondence with companies. The Panels approach to the business review was set out in a press notice published in September 2007 and also in a paper made available on the FRRP website, (Web 2, 2009). 2: Be able to assess budgets based on financial data to support organizational objectives. 2.1 Identify how a budget can be produced taking into account financial constraints and achievement of targets, legal requirements and accounting conventions The modern U.S. budget process dates from the Budget and Accounting act of 1921, which required that federal agencies request their funds from Congress only through the presidents budget. This act reflected in the view that the budget is a financial plan for the government, which has become among the most common ways of characterizing it. Equally frequent is the statement that the budget is ultimately a political document or that the budget process is ultimately a political one. Perhaps because they are stated so frequently, these phrases tend to be passed over, as if their implications were obvious. On reflection, however, the combination of a comprehensive financial plan that becomes a reality with a political process driven by the structure of the US governmental system hardly seems to be a formula for rationally driven, clear and effective budget. That there are shortcomings is not so surprising. The budget is a financial plan, but it is one of extraordinary scope and detail. Modern budgetary practice recognizes three major levels which the budget addresses: Macro economic (concerning the degree to which the budget affects national savings consumption investment and output), Major sector choices or national needs Karen including considerations of both expenditure policy and tax policy), and Detailed program design and execution. Simply put, the budget attempts to cope with this dilemma: people want individual pieces of the budget to be larger but for the total to be smaller. Steps in the Evolution of the Budget Process Budget and accounting act of 1921 established a single federal budget proposed by the president to Congress Post-World War II evolution of fiscal policy incorporated the budget as a factor in determining the direction of the economy Budget and deficit control act of 1973 created a congressional budget process and provided for specific measures for the president to propose and the Congress to act on reductions in approved appropriations. Graham Rodman Hollings provided for automatic cuts in budget outlays in the event deficit targets were exceeded Budget enforcement act provided specific limits for annual appropriations and created zero sum rules for changes to an entitlement programs and revenue measures. A major purpose of Budget concepts is to create a level playing field on which advocates for using the public treasury may meet in fair and open competition. Continuing the familiar analogy, the budget process provides the rules of the game. However, the game may be played by five- year-olds, and there can be as many referees yelling from the sidelines as there are players maybe more. Five-year-olds understand cheating, which is not to be condoned, but they also understand that changing the rules of the game, redefining what constitutes winning and getting a referee to rule in your favor are all excellent substitutes. It is not a coincidence that insiders discuss budget scorekeeping as something that is malleable, (Mathiasen.D,2009). 2.2 Analyse the budget outcomes against organization objectives and identify alternatives. 1. An operating budget is a formal, written plan that aligns the operating requirements with the funding sources of an organization. An operating budget reflects the missions and specific command objectives of the organization, as well as any limitations and controls (e.g., constraining targets, available funds) imposed upon it. An operating budget provides one the means to control obligations and expenditures against approved funding levels. 2. The objective of the operating budget is to provide managers with the ability to plan, organize, staff, and control the operations to accomplish the mission for the fiscal year. 3. There are several factors that are critical to the success of an operating budget. The following is a synopsis of those factors that need to be present to create a positive effect on the process. a. Management Support. Managers at all levels must support the operating budget concept not only in the formulation stage but through the execution stage. b. Guidelines. Guidance must be issued early to allow sufficient time for logical thought processes to take place, and to allow time for establishing milestone dates, specifying targets and limitations, defining terms, formats, and cost categories. c. Periodic Review. Operating budgets must be reviewed periodically to determine that the budget is properly executed. Appropriate adjustments can be made after these reviews. d. Level of Control. The responsibility for budget preparation and execution must be assigned to the level of management that has the responsibility and authority to control costs. Managers should not delegate this responsibility to personnel who do not have the skills and knowledge needed to prepare the organizations operating budget. Budget formulation and execution responsibilities should be incorporated into each appropriate managers performance standards to ensure accountability. Operating Budgeting Process The operating budget process consists of seven phases. Following is a brief description of each phase. Phase 1. Formulation This is the initial phase of the operating budget process. Budget Officers identify policies and guidance from HQUSACE and local areas of concern. Budget Officers will also determine the workload (income and expense), identify targets and limitations (planning and design, supervision and administration, overtime, travel, training, awards, etc.), income estimating guidelines and budget milestones. Phase 2. Review and Analysis Budget Officers review the initial input from the organizations for reasonableness, accuracy, valid assumptions, and past performance. They are also responsible for ensuring rates for departmental overhead, general and administrative overhead, facility accounts and plant accounts are appropriate and reasonable. Budget Officers prepare a proposed budget, identify the impact of alternatives to the proposed budget, make recommendations, and present the proposed budget to the PBAC (Program and Budget Advisory Committee). Phase 3. PBAC Review and Consensus The PBAC will review the proposed budget and alternatives and will determine a recommended budget for submission to the Commander. The PBAC may identify unfinanced requirements, showing their dollar amounts and justifications. Significant changes will be approved by the PBAC and the Commander. Phase 4. Approval The Budget Officer submits the PBAC recommended budget and alternatives for final Command approval. The approved operating budget is made available for execution. Phase 5. Execution Managers obligate and expend funds in accordance with the approved operating budget. Phase 6. Monitoring Operating budgets should be monitored on a monthly basis. Feedback reports are available to managers for monitoring actual performance compared to budgeted amounts. The Budget Officer provides periodic execution reports and analysis to the PBAC and the Commander. As a minimum, mid-year review will be completed. Phase 7. Adjustments Significant operating budget changes identified during the monitoring stage will be summarized and presented to the PBAC and the Commander for approval, (Genetti.A.JR, 1998). 3: Be able to evaluate financial proposals for expenditure submitted by others 3.1 Identify criteria by which proposals are judged The Sustain our Nation experts will be judging proposals using the following criteria: Identifying a Need Does the proposal address one or more of the five key themes? Does the proposal identify a genuine social need without creating issues or problems? User Empathy Have the relevant target individuals and groups been fully consulted in order to identify a legitimate issue? Does the designer fully understand the lifestyle and attitudes of the end user/stakeholders? Sustainability Has the designer considered the triple bottom line: economic, social and environmental factors? Innovation Does the proposal demonstrate a breadth of innovation and creativity? Business planning Are the business/enterprise, its objectives, strategies and market credible? Does the application include viable financial forecasts? Quality of presentation Is the presentation of a professional standard with cohesive narrative and appropriate visuals? (Web 3, 2009). 3.2 Analyse the viability of a proposal for expenditure Calculation of Financial and Economic Viability    Financial and economic appraisal is an important component of any project without which it is incomplete. Increasing awareness about the use of scare resources and the returns obtainable from it makes the issue more important. Financial analysis is used to describe the commercial viability of the project and shows its strength from financial angle. The concept of economic analysis can be considered as an extension of the financial analysis. In economic analysis the concern is on the developmental effect on the society/economy as a whole as against the financial analysis that bothers the interest of the specific entity. In the present report, financial analysis has been done for each market and of each category. Assumptions In the absence of past trends and its proper records it is necessary to make certain assumptions based on the reality of situations for assessing the true viability of any project. For this master plan, following assumptions have been taken:   i) Economic Life of the Project The horizon is important for calculation of benefit and cost of a project. Generally, 20-25 years period is considered proper as economic life of the project. In present case, calculations have been made assuming the economic life of the markets as 20years ending at 2020 A.D.   ii) Growth Period Proposed proposals for market development in Chhatishgarh is very simple. In number of markets, already minimum necessary requirement of construction has been met out and only a small addition or change will take place. In other cases markets would come up in a reasonable time. Therefore, it has been assumed that three-years period will be sufficient for completion of the proposed construction to make the new market yard fully operational. The full revenue in the form of ground rent is expected to flow after a gestation period of three years only.   iii) Occupancy    While making calculations, it has been assumed that all sellers operating in the market at present will shift and occupy space in new market, as they would get better trading facilities. Therefore, 100% space occupancy along with zero leakage of revenue has been considered. Occupancy of space in godown has been estimated for three to six months only in a year since space in godown may be utilized or in demand during harvesting and peak marketing season of different commodities. iv) Income and Expenditure    The main source of income of markets is market fee, leased rent and other sources of income. The income from market fee is assumed and computed at the rate of 1.5% of the value of arrivals expected with the implicit assumption that all the markets will be regulated and there will be a market committee to supervise the market operations and collect the market fee. The growth rate, which has been used for projecting the arrivals, is used for projecting income from this source for next 20 years i.e. up to 2018. Base year value is based on the actual value of arrival for the year 1998-99.   The other main source of income is rent chargeable on buildings. Rent has been assumed at 14% of the cost of construction of trading section and non-trading sections. No change rental has been proposed. While projecting income from this source it would get generate after the gestation period of three years is over. Usually, rent can be increased @10% after every 3 years, which would be, beneficial to the markets. Other income includes fines, sale of forms etc. that has been assumed  £.20,000 per annum and has been kept constant.   Various kinds of expenditure items like establishment cost, repair and maintenance, cost of land, capital cost etc. have to be looked into before preparing cash-flow statement. Establishment cost has been assumed @30% of the market fee expected, as the present staffing plan and expenditure was not available. Repair and maintenance cost has been estimated at 1% of the total cost. A lump sum amount of  £.5000 has been kept as miscellaneous expenditure to meet any contingency. Each market committee has to contribute Marketing Board Fund out of its income. Accordingly, it has been proposed that each market will contribute 10% of its market fee to this fund and the same has been kept as one of the component of operating expenditure. Gross benefits have been worked out for 26 years by deducting total operating expenditure from total income. Net benefits are net of interest payment and depreciation. Depreciation has been estimated by the straight-line method i.e. total capital cost divided by the life of the project assumed a

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Teenage Addiction to the Internet

Teenage Addiction to the Internet Research Topic Teenagers and Internet Thesis Teenagers’ time on the internet is increasing day by day and it’s becoming a bad addiction, so it’s the duty of their parents to have proper checks on them and find ways to reduce the time spent on internet. SUPPORT Section 1 Health of the teenager. Idea 1 -Time spent on the internet. Sources Idea 2 -Adequate sleep routine. Idea 1- (Charles, 2010) Studies has indicated that several parents are investing a lot of time and money on how to keep their teenagers from spending or wasting most of their time on the computer and the internet. Idea 2- (Norbert, 2010) If a teen likes to play online video games, there are chances that he may not be alone. It should be noted, that a teen does not extensively misses many social opportunities or spending almost a day in a week in the online gaming arena, there might be something wrong. It should be noted that how much exactly your teenager is spending time on the internet. Idea 3- (Ilyas, 2012) It is the duty of the parents to have a check on their teenagers’ health and appearance. To notice possible impacts on their health good or bad, and then decide what needs to be done as their next step. Idea 4- (John, 2010) Teenagers should be more encouraged to participate in outdoor activities and not just sit on the internet and waste their time because spending too much time on the internet badly affects teenagers’ health and involving in other outdoor activities contribute to advancement in health. Idea 3 -Possible impacts Idea 4 -Alternatives SUPPORT Section 2 Are the teenagers’ giving enough time to their parents? Possible impacts on the relationship? Idea 1 -Teenagers’ space. Sources Idea 2 -The environment. Idea 1- (Charles, 2010) If your teenager is using extensive internet and you know about it because you are concerned, approach him/her as you are friends, don’t push too hard that they start hiding things from their parents. Idea 2- (Ilyas, 2012) Parents should start off by setting a fixed time allowed to use the internet or their teenager. They should be responsible of regularly checking what their teenagers are doing on the internet. Spending too much hours on the internet should discouraged by the parents. Idea 3- (Norbert, 2010) Joint efforts should be made by both parents and teenagers. It’s the responsibility of teenagers’ to win the confidence of their parents so that they share a relation of trust and things do not get out of hands. Idea 4- (Russ, 2014) Freedom is everyone’s right and it should be given to the teenagers but it should also be noticed that too much freedom spoils the teenager, like too much freedom on using the internet should not be granted by parents. There is always a limit to everything. Idea 3 -Teenagers’ responsibility. Idea 4 -Freedom. SUPPORT Section 3 Social problem that arises when teenagers’ are addicted to the internet. Idea 1 -Opportunities Sources Idea 2 -The goods and negatives Idea 1- (John, 2010) Experts have concluded that more than 90% of the teenagers agree with the fact that internet has made their life convenient and they really need it. Additionally, it was also stated without internet a teenagers’ life becomes non-social, no information about what is going on and they cannot even shop online. Teenagers’ want internet in their lives to connect with people and they are unaware of the fact that wasting too much time is draining out their energy which could be spend somewhere more productive. Idea 2- (Norbert, 2010) Taking account all of the activities that teenagers are doing on the internet, parents should be able to identify when the time to set limits on the use of the internet is or when their teen’s habit is turning into a bad addiction. However, it could be argued that there are teenagers who would use internet to assist them in their studies and as the time has passed more and more teenagers are using internet to earn money. Using internet can either build a teenager’s life or destroy it. Idea 3- (Charles, 2010) Parents these days have become more concern about their children turning teenagers, and as the time is passing their addiction with the internet are increasing time to time. Parents are the only people who can take care of this problem involving their teenagers’ life. Idea 4- (Norbert, 2010) It is good that your teenager is actively taking parts in social activities and making a lot of friends but at the same time there is something that needs to be considered that not everyone on social platforms using internet can be trusted and this may lead to destroying your teenagers’ life because there are many cases of such nature. Idea 3 -Solution to the problem. Idea 4 -Social life. COUNTERARGUMENTS What are the possible effects of internet? Idea 1 -Internet and Positivity. Sources Rebuttal -Teenagers’ productivity using internet. Idea 1- Russ, W. (2014) Internet has become more than just a resource and is not capable of making people earn using the internet in their house and this can be considered a very positive effect on a teenager who is earning through the use of the internet. Idea- 2 (John, 2010) Teenagers as of today has access to numerous of services easily obtainable on the computer with the help of the internet. Teenagers of today have stopped using telephone and they are more comfortable using instant messaging or chatting. They prefer posting their photos in MySpace and share them with thousands of friend, mostly of them are friend they haven’t met. They have all the information and the news using the internet on their smartphones. Idea 3- (Ilyas, 2012) Using extensive internet can destroy the life of a teenager. Internet is a resource with numerous possibilities and people around the world are actually using this in the most illegal way. So, it is the duty of the parents to have certain checks as their teenager does not get involved in any sort of illegal activity. Idea 2 Internet and virtual information. Rebuttal -Having knowledge and information is a good thing, actually it is considered as a skill in a teenager to be active and know about what’s going on but it should be always noted that this thing does not get out of hands for example having information of illegal stuff or activity or even getting involved in one using the internet. Idea 3 -Negative effects Rebuttal You cannot just stop your teenager from using internet because this would be inappropriate. However, if you sense some suspicion in your teenagers’ activities then you can confront him/her and make them aware of the possible consequences. Sources Charles, L. (2010). Teenagers, Computers Internet. Retrieved from,-Computers-and-Internetid=3619685 Ilyas, G. (2012). Teenagers cannot survive without Internet (Essay). Retrieved from John, W. (2010). Teenagers and Internet Use Teens Outsmart Parents. Retrieved from Norbert, G. (2010). Your Teenager and the Internet The Good, the Bad and the Ugly. Retrieved from,-the-Bad-and-the-Uglyid=3758823 Russ, W. (2014). Without WiFi, Life Would End (aka Teen Internet Addiction). Retrieved from

Roger Williams :: essays research papers

Roger Williams ... A Brief Biography Drypoint etching, 1936, by Arthur W. Heintzelman, commemorating the Tercentenary of the founding of Rhode Island by Roger Williams. Courtesy of Roger Williams University Archives. ROGER WILLIAMS was born in London, circa 1604, the son of James and Alice (Pemberton) Williams. James, the son of Mark and Agnes (Audley) Williams was a "merchant Tailor" (an importer and trader) and probably a man of some importance. His will, proved 19 November 1621, left, in addition to bequests to his "loving wife, Alice," to his sons, Sydrach, Roger and Robert, and to his daughter Catherine, money and bread to the poor in various sections of London. The will of Alice (Pemberton) Williams was admitted to probate 26 January 1634. Among other bequests, she left the sum of Ten Pounds yearly for twenty years to her son, Roger Williams, "now beyond the seas." She further provided that if Roger predeceased her, "what remaineth thereof unpaid ... shall be paid to his wife and daughter...." Obviously, by the time of her death, Roger's mother was aware of the birth in America in 1633 of her grandchild, Mary Williams. Roger's youth was spent in the parish of "St. Sepulchre's, without Newgate, London." While a young man, he must have been aware of the numerous burnings at the stake that had taken place at nearby Smithfield of so-called Puritans or heretics. This probably influenced his later strong beliefs in civic and religious liberty. During his teens, Roger Williams came to the attention of Sir Edward Coke, a brilliant lawyer and one-time Chief Justice of England, through whose influence he was enrolled at Sutton's Hospital, a part of Charter House, a school in London. He next entered Pembroke College at Cambridge University from which he graduated in 1627. All of the literature currently available at Pembroke to prospective students mentions Roger Williams, his part in the Reformation, and his founding of the Colony of Rhode Island. At Pembroke, he was one of eight granted scholarships based on excellence in Latin, Greek and Hebrew. Pembroke College in Providence, once the women's college of Brown University, was named after Pembroke at Cambridge in honor of Roger Williams. In the years after he left Cambridge, Roger Williams was Chaplain to a wealthy family, and on 15 December 1629, he married MARY BARNARD at the Church of High Laver, Essex, England. Even at this time, he became a controversial figure because of his ideas on freedom of worship.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Special Education in Rural Communities Essays -- Learning Disabilities

Special Education in Rural Communities Christmas in January, I hurried quickly to the party, stereo in hand. Checking the time, I rushed across Pollock road to attend my first function as a member of Best Buddies, a community based program sponsored by universities throughout the world to enrich the lives of college students and adults with intellectual disabilities. I entered the room; a low buzz nagged at the edge of my hearing. As I placed my stereo upon the piano and plugged the chord into the socket, I kept my face adverted from the room. I struggled, as flashes of memory coalesced into bright beads, markers, and hours of speech therapy. If you are among the 2.9 million Americans with a Learning Disability (LD), you realize that LD has no cure; instead, you manage it in a series of patterns and behaviors (LDA 1). I was fortunate; my last moments in a Special Needs classroom were as a fifth grader leaving State College. However, I remember clearly Mrs. Weiss and Ms. White and their impact upon me. Years later upon my return from the Army, I found among my old things the posters, alphabet book, and little stories that had made me so proud and received such encouragement from my teachers and parents. Returning to the present, I turned back towards the room and walked to the table, pinning on my Santa Hat name tag as I went. Milling around me was a throng of adults, buddies and students. I meandered to the air-hockey table and saw an unaccompanied buddy. Hitting the puck to him, he casually returned the stroke and a conversation ensued that ranged from his prowess as a bowler, to difficulties with his dad, to the small escapades at his work, a local Sheetz. Talking in often excited tones, the intensity of the air... ...d, expressed in alphabet books, stories, and posters. Works Cited Bureau, U.S. Census. Meeting the Challenge: Americans with Disabilities, 1997. Washington D.C: U.S. Census Bureau, 1997. Jimerson, Lorna. Special Challenges of the "No Child Left Behind" Act for Rural Schools and Districts. Washington, DC: The Rural School and Community Trust, 2003. LDA. Postion Paper of the Learning Disabilities Association of America. 2000. webpage. LDA. 12 February 2004. McIntyre, Alexander Ph.D. Special Education and Rural America. Washington D.C: Department of Education, 2002. MST. Multisystem Therapy: Treatment Model. 2000. Webpage. MST. Available: 25 March 2004. Sitlington, Patricia L., Gary M. Clark, and Oliver P. Kolstoe. Transition Education & Services for Adolescents. 3rd ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 2000.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

NUR 403 Joy Travelbee Essay

Introduction Joyce Travelbee was born in 1926 and is well known for her contribution and work as a nursing theorist. In 1956 earned her degree as a Bachelor in Nursing from Louisiana State University, later in 1959 received the degree of Master in Science at Yale University. During most of her carrier she dealt with psychiatric nursing and also education. Died tragically while trying to obtain her PhD degree in 1973. Key Points of her Theory There are some main or mayor concepts on this theory defined by Joyce Travelbee to assist nurse to understand the model nursing, hope, meaning, suffering, communication, and self-therapy. Existentialism and Logotherapy are important in this theory, Existentialism states that humans remain constantly under the influence of choices that creates conflicts and are responsible for the results of those choices they made. Logotherapy is also a concept on this theory based on the assumption that emotional stability is best protected by meaningful fulfillment in life, it focuses on the future. Health is another concept included in this theory is describe as an equilibrium of every person physically, emotionally and spiritually in relation with the environment where the loss of this equilibrium bring an uneasy feeling called suffering. Historical Background The historical surrounding of this theorist was the calamities and human suffering during and after War World Two and the bases for her theory, philosophy and model are on Soren Kierkegaard’s philosophy of existentialism and Viktor Frankl’s Logotherapy. Existentialism stated that people are accountable for the choices they make in life and the repercussion on the people who make those choices. Logotherapy, was first proposed in Frankl’s book Man’s Searching for Meaning (1963), a type of psychotherapy that include the idea that fulfillment is the greatest protection against emotional instability. This was part of idea proposed by a Jewish prisoner of the Auschwitz concentration camp who found meaning for his life in the midst of extreme suffering, this is described on his account of the experiences he had while working in the harsh conditions while in the concentration camp. Term Definition Applied to Nursing Practice Applied to Nursing Education Applied to Nursing Research Person Person is define as a Human being with physical, emotional and psychological component. Both the patient and the nurse are consider as a human being with its own uniqueness that allow to take in consideration when we are developing the nursing process taking care of the mind and the body too. As a nurse is important to develop the rapport between nurse student, educator and patient as a person and share each one experiences. A human being as a unique individual, in constant evolution and change. Important to define this with the new changes related with genetics. Health The physical, mental or psychological and spiritual balance in a person. By knowing the different components of health we can comprehend and target better factors that affect the individual and measure the health status by physical examination, laboratory test and assessment. The optimal equilibrium of the individual or person, state of well-being. Knowing the objective component of health give us the opportunity to research about diseases. Nursing Is a process establish between the nurse professional, the individual, family or community to assist with disease prevention, health promotion or coping with the illness finding a meaning in this conditions. Establish a better understanding of the nursing process where no only the patient is important but also the family and the community. Assist to target in the education process no only the patient direct but also family and the community to better fulfill our roles as educators. As researchers investigation should include all the persons involve in the nursing process. Environment As experiences we encountered during our life and the response to it as sufferings, pain, hope, and illness. Promotes nurses to get familiar with external factors that may impact the individual health stage that should be targeted during the nursing process. In the education process knowing the factor that may bring emotional instability will give us a proper tool to educate on how to deal with them. Nurse involvement in search how the external factors may affect the individual health References: Octaviano, E. F. & Balita, C. E. (2008). Theoretical Foundations of Nursing: The Philippine Perspective. Philippines: Ultimate Learning Series, 93-98. Tomey, A. M. & Alligood, M. R. (2002). Nursing Theorists and Their Work. 5th ed. Missouri: Mosby, 418-425.

The Folly of Rewarding a While Hoping for B

The rabidity Of re fabricateing A, temporary hookup Hoping for B pillow slip Study all overview In this case compendium we shall be examining the unin leaded contradictory results that compensate constitutions bring or so and recommendations in work the issues highlighted Problem Statement legion(predicate) Problems in placements ar created because of Faulty Incentives and blemish satisfy systems that ar setup to accomplish mavin thing but actually does the opposite. While Mangers complain ab come out lack of motivating in their workers, they energy as headspring consider the possibility that the strengthener systems theyve installed be paying off for the opposite.Directly united to these Faulty Incentive and Flawed Systems are key issues with 1) Employee need, 2) Reward Systems, 3) foretaste/Misaligned perception and 4) Biasness in Decision making that are deeply rooted as a causative agent in the Flawed system Hypothesis 1)Misaligned Perception/Expectatio n Process Perspective A breast at lawfulness theory and medical prognosis Theory in visualizeing the anticipate outcome perceived by employee as related to airal attitude towards rewards systems )Employee pauperism which is dependent on the effectiveness of its reward system As pointed out by MASLOW HIERACHY OF NEEDS and HERZBERGS TWO-FACTOR theory of Motivation highlight the effect of rewards both glaring and intangible on behavior 3) unclouded or Poor decision making As shown by biasness of the club in electing Public do official, even in the face of the right option for mo/election 4) Poor cognitive care for and attitudes In Most Companies is caused by its reward systems, not the workforce.Analysis As Pointed out by prediction theory that People make choices just about behavior based on their turn outation of what is likely to happen in footing of social movement leading to per mixtureance and public presentation leading to desired reward. On the other(a) ha nd Equity Theory Points out that those Perceptions about reward systems matter. From Equity Theory, if the proportion of someones outcome/ arousal is equal to someone elses ratio, integrity exists.But if not, inequity exists and the theory suggests that People are motivated to reduce their Contribution in some federal agency According to Equity theory, outcomes from a Job include pay, recognition, forward motions, friendly relationships and intrinsic rewards. To liquidate these rewards, the individual(a) makes inputs to the business line much(prenominal) as eon, effort, experience e. t. c and compares it to someone elses ratio of contribution. consequently the Individual behavior is affected by his or her Perception than the actual reality.In Sports, An underpaid Basketballer pull up s gather insing be discouraged in create teamwork skill. in order to make up for any inadequacies, Expecting that Scoring pass on step-up his or her earnings at the injury of the team s uccess. Similarly, if this player perceives that future rewards energy be compromised such player depart reduce his or her commitment in repartee to his feeling of inequity towards the team up success. Thus it is disc everyplaceed that flock cope into account Equity and expectation about future rewards in their choice of behavior.Taking a look further points out that Many rewards systems discourage desired behaviors while honour the very action that causes problems. Managers obviously externalise reward systems to motivate people to carry in certain shipway, yet reward systems do not always mystify the expected results. For example In human be War II troops were attached for the duration unless killed or invalided. They had a knock-down(prenominal) motivation to hasten the end of the war. affiliate troops in the Vietnam War had a tour of a year or less. Their self interest was not secure to the end of the war.While their g all overnments wanted them to tenseness on winning the war, their rewards were linked to looking aft(prenominal) themselves. Not to their opponents. They were there for the duration. Evidence of a Reward System which encourages Contrary behavior can also be traced to the wellness Industry . Looking at a health System where Patients bear short(p) or no damage, we shouldnt be surprised when doctors over test and over treat illness, and nothing is breake to cut back this action, because the Patients have no incentive to fend the doctors actions.For doctors there may be some reign over financial gain from over servicing. More important though is the come-at-able costs and professional damage from malpractice suits. Over servicing diminishes the chance of facing such suits, or losing them if they occur. 3) Evidence of how a unretentive decision making Process has stereotyped and created a partiality that prevents objective regard of an issue or situation is seen in Politics. This is a state of being incline Most of us want innocent politicians who tell us clearly what they will do in office, then vex to that once elected.The actual reality is that politicians dont behave that way, yet they cross elected by our vote and we abide this reward system. Also, we expect our national service to do the best it can with the conjunction resources available to it. Yet there is ordinarily great mismanagement in the public empyrean, Yet nobody act to split this issue or call the look to order because it will harm the regimens standing and may cost it votes. This portrays a consequence of a community supported reward system of necessity biased against good public sector management. ) pecuniary incentives are excogitateed to provide direct motivation do this and you will get that while at the same time can spell doom. For Example openhanded a Psychiatrist a high payment for condemning someone to be in hoodacitated at the expense of an individual being competent, the psychiatrist can be motivated by the higher pay. This Financial reward can therefore execute as a tangible form of motivation 4) Since some people expect that a certain take of effort will lead to certain levels and types of performance.In turn, people develop expectations that a given level and type of performance will be rewarded or punished Recommendations Since Organization design are changing in response to a changing world, it is thus despotic to look at an alternative way of reward system, one that benefits all and pop off the problem introduced by the traditional, conventional paradeion to reward system. While I keep that there is no one cap fits all solution, also interesting is how the recommendations from individually case study analysis someways tend to be applicable to other case study analysis set earlier in the classAn effectively plotted and administered reward system can remedy motivation and performance. 1) Starting from the Issues Introduced by the forethought perspective and equity Perspective. An Effective director can help his or her Organization to understand both equity issues and expectancies. This might involve framing the situation for someone, so that his or her perceptions more closely reflect the Managers perception of reality. Managers constantly need to elucidate performance and be able to measuring the attractiveness of rewards to employees. ) Effective Reward Systems should focus on positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is the most effective tool for boost desired behavior because it stimulates people to take actions because they want to because they get something of value (internally or externally) for doing it. An effectively designed and managed reward chopine can drive an organizations change emergence by positively reinforcing desired behaviors. The uncertainty to ask at this point is how to skeletal system an Effective reward system.By taking the fin steps listed below, an effective reward system could be achieved Timel y. The recognition/rewards should be provided often enough to make performers feel precious for their efforts. Achievable. The employees or groups goals should be within the top of the performers Meaningful. The achievements rewarded should provide an important return on investment to both the performer and the organization. Specific. A line of sight should be keep between rewards and actions.Reliable. The program should operate match to its principles and purpose. 3) Performance Management. Organizations should concentrate on the process of managing performance and get away from thinking of the annual performance appraisal process as performance management. The process of performance management reflects how the work gets done and creates the environs in which people feel cherished for their achievements. The performance management process includes cardinal critical componentsI) A Focus on what is important to change or be improved. II) A Measures to determine whether and ho w much further is being achieved. III) Feedback so that performers will greet whether and how much progress is being achieved. IV) advantage so that everyone celebrates achievements as they are being unfolded. 4) Clear Communication. Managers should clarify what they mean by performance so that there wont be misalignment and such that employees would understand how they can support what the manager is nerve-wracking to accomplish. CONCLUSIONSince reward system cannot be eliminated from the organization system and people tend to do what they perceive will be rewarded, the solution presented here require a shift in every prospect of reward system practice. Also fit to note is that since reward system will keep evolving, some systems being implemented such as broad dance orchestra i. e increment in the pay steps within a circumstantial Job title without a promotion and cafeteria-Style Benefits i. e. Ability to allow employees to select from a menu of benefits. Will need to be d esigned in such ways that makes them Nimble and Flexible.